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Author Chang, Binbin ♦ Guo, Yanzhen ♦ Yin, Hang ♦ Zhang, Shouren ♦ Yang, Baocheng
Source United States Department of Energy Office of Scientific and Technical Information
Content type Text
Language English
Subject Keyword INORGANIC, ORGANIC, PHYSICAL AND ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY ♦ ADSORPTION ♦ CARBON ♦ CATALYSTS ♦ CHEMICAL ACTIVATION ♦ DENSITY ♦ DESORPTION ♦ ELECTRON MICROSCOPY ♦ FORMALDEHYDE ♦ INFRARED SPECTRA ♦ OLEIC ACID ♦ OXYGEN ♦ POROUS MATERIALS ♦ RESINS ♦ RESORCINOL ♦ SOLIDS ♦ SULFONATION ♦ SURFACE AREA ♦ SYNTHESIS ♦ TITRATION ♦ ZINC CHLORIDES
Abstract Generally, porous carbon nanospheres materials are usually prepared via a template method, which is a multi-steps and high-cost strategy. Here, we reported a porous carbon nanosphere solid acid with high surface area and superior porosity, as well as uniform nanospheical morphology, which prepared by a facile chemical activation with ZnCl{sub 2} using resorcinol-formaldehyde (RF) resins spheres as precursor. The activation of RF resins spheres by ZnCl{sub 2} at 400 °C brought high surface area and large volume, and simultaneously retained numerous oxygen-containing and hydrogen-containing groups due to the relatively low processing temperature. The presence of these functional groups is favorable for the modification of –SO{sub 3}H groups by a followed sulfonation treating with sulphuric acid and organic sulfonic acid. The results of N{sub 2} adsorption–desorption and electron microscopy clearly showed the preservation of porous structure and nanospherical morphology. Infrared spectra certified the variation of surface functional groups after activation and the successful modification of –SO{sub 3}H groups after sulfonation. The acidities of catalysts were estimated by an indirect titration method and the modified amount of –SO{sub 3}H groups were examined by energy dispersive spectra. The results suggested sulfonated porous carbon nanospheres catalysts possessed high acidities and –SO{sub 3}H densities, which endowed their significantly catalytic activities for biodiesel production. Furthermore, their excellent stability and recycling property were also demonstrated by five consecutive cycles. - Graphical abstract: Sulfonated porous carbon nanospheres with high surface area and superior catalytic performance were prepared by a facile chemical activation route. - Highlights: • Porous carbon spheres solid acid prepared by a facile chemical activation. • It owns high surface area, superior porosity and uniform spherical morphology. • It possesses high acidity and high –SO{sub 3}H density. • It exhibits excellently catalytic performance for esterification of oleic acid.
ISSN 00224596
Educational Use Research
Learning Resource Type Article
Publisher Date 2015-01-15
Publisher Place United States
Journal Journal of Solid State Chemistry
Volume Number 221


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