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Author Hoang, N. H. ♦ McKenzie, D. R. ♦ McFall, W. D. ♦ Yin, Y.
Source United States Department of Energy Office of Scientific and Technical Information
Content type Text
Language English
Subject Keyword MATERIALS SCIENCE ♦ TITANIUM NITRIDES ♦ THIN FILMS ♦ STRESSES ♦ CHEMICAL VAPOR DEPOSITION ♦ LATTICE PARAMETERS ♦ ROUGHNESS ♦ MICROSTRUCTURE ♦ GRAIN SIZE ♦ PLASMA ♦ X-RAY DIFFRACTION ♦ CVD ♦ XRD
Abstract Stoichiometric titanium nitride (TiN) films were deposited at less than 130{degree}C in a new configuration of the helicon activated reactive evaporation system. An {ital in} {ital situ} ellipsometer was used to monitor the optical properties of the films during growth. The film stress, lattice parameter, surface roughness, crystallite size, and preferred orientation were investigated as a function of substrate bias and hence ion energy of the incident species. The intrinsic stress dependence on ion energy shows the expected result also shown by a variety of materials and is in good agreement with the theoretical model of Davis [Thin Solid Films {bold 226}, 30 (1993)]. The high stress level at {minus}50 V bias is confirmed by measurement of lattice parameter. X-ray-diffraction measurements show that the (111)-preferred orientation normal to the substrate surface correlates strongly with the stress level of the films. By correlating our results with those from a number of other reported studies at higher substrate temperature we conclude that the observed preferred orientation in TiN films can be explained from the viewpoint of the energy minimization principle. Kinetic factors are of less importance except possibly at the highest bombardment energies. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}
ISSN 00218979
Educational Use Research
Learning Resource Type Article
Publisher Date 1996-12-01
Publisher Place United States
Journal Journal of Applied Physics
Volume Number 80
Issue Number 11


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