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Author Kim, Dong Sik ♦ Kim, Eun
Source United States Department of Energy Office of Scientific and Technical Information
Content type Text
Language English
Subject Keyword APPLIED LIFE SCIENCES ♦ RADIATION PROTECTION AND DOSIMETRY ♦ BIOMEDICAL RADIOGRAPHY ♦ ELECTRIC POTENTIAL ♦ ENERGY SPECTRA ♦ MAMMARY GLANDS ♦ MEASURING METHODS ♦ NOISE ♦ PHOSPHORS ♦ PRODUCTIVITY ♦ SENSITIVITY ♦ VARIATIONS
Abstract Purpose: The fixed pattern noise in radiography image detectors is caused by various sources. Multiple readout circuits with gate drivers and charge amplifiers are used to efficiently acquire the pixel voltage signals. However, the multiple circuits are not identical and thus yield nonuniform system gains. Nonuniform sensitivities are also produced from local variations in the charge collection elements. Furthermore, in phosphor-based detectors, the optical scattering at the top surface of the columnar CsI growth, the grain boundaries, and the disorder structure causes spatial sensitivity variations. These nonuniform gains or sensitivities cause fixed pattern noise and degrade the detector performance, even though the noise problem can be partially alleviated by using gain correction techniques. Hence, in order to develop good detectors, comparative analysis of the energy spectrum of the fixed pattern noise is important. Methods: In order to observe the energy spectrum of the fixed pattern noise, a normalized noise power spectrum (NNPS) of the fixed pattern noise is considered in this paper. Since the fixed pattern noise is mainly caused by the nonuniform gains, we call the spectrum the gain NNPS. We first asymptotically observe the gain NNPS and then formulate two relationships to calculate the gain NNPS based on a nonuniform-gain model. Since the gain NNPS values are quite low compared to the usual NNPS, measuring such a low NNPS value is difficult. By using the average of the uniform exposure images, a robust measuring method for the gain NNPS is proposed in this paper. Results: By using the proposed measuring method, the gain NNPS curves of several prototypes of general radiography and mammography detectors were measured to analyze their fixed pattern noise properties. We notice that a direct detector, which is based on the a-Se photoconductor, showed lower gain NNPS than the indirect-detector case, which is based on the CsI scintillator. By comparing the gain NNPS curves of the indirect detectors, we could analyze the scintillator properties depending on the techniques for the scintillator surface processing. Conclusions: A robust measuring method for the NNPS of the fixed pattern noise of a radiography detector is proposed in this paper. The method can measure a stable gain NNPS curve, even though the fixed pattern noise level is quite low. From the measured gain NNPS curves, we can compare and analyze the detector properties in terms of producing the fixed pattern noise.
ISSN 00942405
Educational Use Research
Learning Resource Type Article
Publisher Date 2016-06-15
Publisher Place United States
Journal Medical Physics
Volume Number 43
Issue Number 6


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