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Author Zhang, Guojun
Source United States Department of Energy Office of Scientific and Technical Information
Content type Text
Language English
Subject Keyword APPLIED LIFE SCIENCES ♦ AMINO ACIDS ♦ APOPTOSIS ♦ BORON CHLORIDES ♦ CYTOCHROMES ♦ IMMUNOTHERAPY ♦ LYMPHOCYTES ♦ MESSENGER-RNA ♦ MITOCHONDRIA ♦ MUTAGENESIS ♦ MUTANTS ♦ NATURAL KILLER CELLS ♦ NEOPLASMS ♦ PEPTIDES ♦ RECEPTORS ♦ TOXICITY ♦ TUMOR CELLS
Abstract Staphylococcal enterotoxin C2 (SEC2), a member of bacterial superantigen, is one of the most potent known activators of T lymphocytes. With this property, SEC2 has already been used in clinic as a tumor immunotherapy agent in China. To increase the antitumor activity, a SEC2 mutant named ST-4 (GKVTG102-106WWH) with amino acid substitutions in T cell receptor (TCR)-binding domain was generated by site-directed mutagenesis, and the molecular mechanism of the enhanced antitumor activity was investigated. Results showed that ST-4 could activate much more Vβ 8.2 and 8.3 T cells and NK cells compared with SEC2, and exhibited significantly enhanced immunocyte stimulation and antitumor activity in vitro. The synthetic peptide sequencing the residues of mutant TCR-binding domain could competitively inhibit the immunocyte stimulation activity of ST-4. Most importantly, ST-4 up-regulated granzyme B and perforin at both mRNA and protein levels. We also found that expression of proapoptotic proteins cytochrome c, BAX and activation of caspase-3, 9 was up-regulated, and antiapoptotic protein Bcl-xL was down-regulated in the treatment with either ST-4 or SEC2. When granzyme B inhibitor or perforin inhibitor is presented, tumor cell viability was significantly rescued. Taken together, we demonstrate that increased ST-4-TCR recognition contributed to massive T cells and NK cells activation. These activated cells released up-regulated granzyme B and perforin, which induced the enhanced tumor cells apoptosis by mitochondrial apoptotic pathway, and ultimately led to enhanced tumor cell growth inhibition. ST-4 may be a promising candidate for antitumor clinic usage in future. - Highlights: • We obtained a SEC2 mutant ST-4 with enhanced superantigen and antitumor activity. • Increased ST-4-TCR recognition contributed to massive T cells and NK cells activation. • Up-regulated GzmB and PRF1 in T cell by ST-4 induced enhanced tumor cells apoptosis. • Enhanced tumor cell apoptosis induced by ST-4 via mitochondrial apoptotic pathway.
ISSN 0041008X
Educational Use Research
Learning Resource Type Article
Publisher Date 2016-12-15
Publisher Place United States
Journal Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
Volume Number 313


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