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Author Aima, Manik ♦ Reed, Joshua L. ♦ DeWerd, Larry A. ♦ Culberson, Wesley S.
Source United States Department of Energy Office of Scientific and Technical Information
Content type Text
Language English
Subject Keyword ISOTOPES AND RADIATION SOURCES ♦ APPLIED LIFE SCIENCES ♦ BRACHYTHERAPY ♦ CALIBRATION ♦ CORRECTIONS ♦ CYLINDRICAL CONFIGURATION ♦ DOSE RATES ♦ DOSIMETRY ♦ DRUGS ♦ ENERGY SPECTRA ♦ FLUORESCENCE ♦ GERMANIUM ♦ HIGH-PURITY GE DETECTORS ♦ IMPURITIES ♦ IONIZATION CHAMBERS ♦ KERMA ♦ MONTE CARLO METHOD ♦ PALLADIUM 103 ♦ POLYMERS ♦ SODIUM IODIDES
Abstract Purpose: A new directional {sup 103}Pd planar source array called a CivaSheet™ has been developed by CivaTech Oncology, Inc., for potential use in low-dose-rate (LDR) brachytherapy treatments. The array consists of multiple individual polymer capsules called CivaDots, containing {sup 103}Pd and a gold shield that attenuates the radiation on one side, thus defining a hot and cold side. This novel source requires new methods to establish a source strength metric. The presence of gold material in such close proximity to the active {sup 103}Pd region causes the source spectrum to be significantly different than the energy spectra of seeds normally used in LDR brachytherapy treatments. In this investigation, the authors perform air-kerma strength (S{sub K}) measurements, develop new correction factors for these measurements based on an experimentally verified energy spectrum, and test the robustness of transferring S{sub K} to a well-type ionization chamber. Methods: S{sub K} measurements were performed with the variable-aperture free-air chamber (VAFAC) at the University of Wisconsin Medical Radiation Research Center. Subsequent measurements were then performed in a well-type ionization chamber. To realize the quantity S{sub K} from a directional source with gold material present, new methods and correction factors were considered. Updated correction factors were calculated using the MCNP 6 Monte Carlo code in order to determine S{sub K} with the presence of gold fluorescent energy lines. In addition to S{sub K} measurements, a low-energy high-purity germanium (HPGe) detector was used to experimentally verify the calculated spectrum, a sodium iodide (NaI) scintillating counter was used to verify the azimuthal and polar anisotropy, and a well-type ionization chamber was used to test the feasibility of disseminating S{sub K} values for a directional source within a cylindrically symmetric measurement volume. Results: The UW VAFAC was successfully used to measure the S{sub K} of four CivaDots with reproducibilities within 0.3%. Monte Carlo methods were used to calculate the UW VAFAC correction factors and the calculated spectrum emitted from a CivaDot was experimentally verified with HPGe detector measurements. The well-type ionization chamber showed minimal variation in response (<1.5%) as a function of source positioning angle, indicating that an American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM) Accredited Dosimetry Calibration Laboratory calibrated well chamber would be a suitable device to transfer an S{sub K}-based calibration to a clinical user. S{sub K} per well-chamber ionization current ratios were consistent among the four dots measured. Additionally, the measurements and predictions of anisotropy show uniform emission within the solid angle of the VAFAC, which demonstrates the robustness of the S{sub K} measurement approach. Conclusions: This characterization of a new {sup 103}Pd directional brachytherapy source helps to establish calibration methods that could ultimately be used in the well-established AAPM Task Group 43 formalism. Monte Carlo methods accurately predict the changes in the energy spectrum caused by the fluorescent x-rays produced in the gold shield.
ISSN 00942405
Educational Use Research
Learning Resource Type Article
Publisher Date 2015-12-15
Publisher Place United States
Journal Medical Physics
Volume Number 42
Issue Number 12


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