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Author Schaubel, K.M. ♦ Laughon, G.J. ♦ Campbell, G.L. ♦ Langhorn, A.R. ♦ Stevens, N.C. ♦ Tupper, M.L.
Source IEEE Xplore Digital Library
Content type Text
Publisher Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc. (IEEE)
File Format PDF
Copyright Year ©1993
Language English
Subject Domain (in DDC) Technology ♦ Engineering & allied operations
Subject Keyword Cryogenics ♦ Helium ♦ Hydrogen ♦ Programmable control ♦ Automatic control ♦ Superconducting magnets ♦ Electron beams ♦ Cyclotrons ♦ Heating ♦ Gyrotrons
Abstract The original DIII-D cryogenic system was commissioned in 1981 and was used to cool the cryopanel arrays for three hydrogen neutral beam injectors. Since then, new demands for liquid helium have arisen including: a fourth neutral beam injector, ten superconducting magnets for the electron cyclotron heating gyrotrons, and more recently, the advanced divertor cryopump which resides inside the tokamak vacuum vessel. The original cryosystem could not meet these demands. Consequently, the cryosystem was upgraded in several phases to increase capacity, improve reliability, and reduce maintenance. The majority of the original system has been replaced with superior equipment. The capacity now exists to support present as well as future demands for liquid helium at DIII-D including a hydrogen pellet injector, which is being constructed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Upgrades to the cryosystem include: a recently commissioned 150 l/hr helium liquefier, two 55 g/sec helium screw compressors, a fully automated 20-valve cryogen distribution box, a high efficiency helium wet expander, and the conversion of equipment from manual or pneumatic to programmable logic controller (PLC) control. The distribution box was designed and constructed for compactness due to limited space availability. Overall system efficiency was significantly improved by replacing the existing neutral beam reliquefier Joule-Thomson valve with a reciprocating wet expander. The implementation of a PLC-based automatic control system has resulted in increased efficiency and reliability. This paper will describe the cryosystem design with emphasis on newly added equipment. In addition, performance and operational experience will be discussed.
Description Author affiliation: Gen. Atomics, San Diego, CA, USA (Schaubel, K.M.; Laughon, G.J.; Campbell, G.L.; Langhorn, A.R.; Stevens, N.C.; Tupper, M.L.)
ISBN 0780314123
Educational Role Student ♦ Teacher
Age Range above 22 year
Educational Use Research ♦ Reading
Education Level UG and PG
Learning Resource Type Article
Publisher Date 1993-10-11
Publisher Place USA
Rights Holder Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc. (IEEE)
Size (in Bytes) 452.73 kB
Page Count 4
Starting Page 337
Ending Page 340


Source: IEEE Xplore Digital Library