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Author Broström, Julia M. ♦ Ye, Zhi-wei ♦ Axmon, Anna ♦ Littorin, Margareta ♦ Tinnerberg, Håkan ♦ Lindh, Christian H. ♦ Zheng, Huiyuan ♦ Ghalali, Aram ♦ Stenius, Ulla ♦ Jönsson, Bo A. G. ♦ Högberg, Johan
Source United States Department of Energy Office of Scientific and Technical Information
Content type Text
Language English
Subject Keyword APPLIED LIFE SCIENCES ♦ ASTHMA ♦ ATP ♦ BIOLOGICAL MARKERS ♦ DEVELOPING COUNTRIES ♦ ENZYMES ♦ HUMAN POPULATIONS ♦ IN VITRO ♦ INFLAMMATION ♦ LUNGS ♦ MOLECULAR WEIGHT ♦ MONOCYTES ♦ PERSONNEL ♦ RECEPTORS ♦ SENSITIZERS ♦ TOLUENE ♦ TOXICITY ♦ URINE
Abstract Diisocyanates are industrial chemicals which have a wide range of applications in developed and developing countries. They are notorious lung toxicants and respiratory sensitizers. However, the mechanisms behind their adverse effects are not adequately characterized. Autotaxin (ATX) is an enzyme producing lysophosphatidic acid (LPA), and the ATX-LPA axis has been implicated in lung related inflammatory conditions and diseases, including allergic asthma, but not to toxicity of environmental low-molecular-weight chemicals. We investigated effects of toluene diisocyanate (TDI) on ATX induction in human lung epithelial cell models, and we correlated LPA-levels in plasma to biomarkers of TDI exposure in urine collected from workers exposed to < 5 ppb (parts per billion). Information on workers' symptoms was collected through interviews. One nanomolar TDI robustly induced ATX release within 10 min in vitro. A P2X7- and P2X4-dependent microvesicle formation was implicated in a rapid ATX release and a subsequent protein synthesis. Co-localization between purinergic receptors and ATX was documented by immunofluorescence and confocal microscopy. The release was modulated by monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) and by extracellular ATP. In workers, we found a dose–response relationship between TDI exposure biomarkers in urine and LPA levels in plasma. Among symptomatic workers reporting “sneezing”, the LPA levels were higher than among non-symptomatic workers. This is the first report indicating induction of the ATX-LPA axis by an environmental low-molecular-weight chemical, and our data suggest a role for the ATX-LPA axis in TDI toxicity. - Highlights: • Human epithelial cells release autotaxin in response to 1 nM toluene diisocyanate (TDI). • The release involves P2X4 and P2X7 receptors and is modulated by ATP and MCP-1. • Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) was measured in workers exposed to < 5 ppb TDI. • LPA in plasma correlated to TDI exposure biomarkers in workers. • Symptomatic workers had higher LPA levels than those without symptoms.
ISSN 0041008X
Educational Use Research
Learning Resource Type Article
Publisher Date 2015-09-15
Publisher Place United States
Journal Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
Volume Number 287
Issue Number 3


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