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Author Sahai, Amit ♦ Vadhan, Salil
Source ACM Digital Library
Content type Text
Publisher Association for Computing Machinery (ACM)
File Format PDF
Copyright Year ©2003
Language English
Subject Domain (in DDC) Computer science, information & general works ♦ Data processing & computer science
Subject Keyword Knowledge complexity ♦ Proof systems ♦ Statistical difference ♦ Zero knowledge
Abstract We present the first complete problem for SZK, the class of promise problems possessing statistical zero-knowledge proofs (against an honest verifier). The problem, called Statistical Difference, is to decide whether two efficiently samplable distributions are either statistically close or far apart. This gives a new characterization of SZK that makes no reference to interaction or zero knowledge.We propose the use of complete problems to unify and extend the study of statistical zero knowledge. To this end, we examine several consequences of our Completeness Theorem and its proof, such as:---A way to make every (honest-verifier) statistical zero-knowledge proof very communication efficient, with the prover sending only one bit to the verifier (to achieve soundness error 1/2).---Simpler proofs of many of the previously known results about statistical zero knowledge, such as the Fortnow and Aiello--H&##949;stad upper bounds on the complexity of SZK and Okamoto's result that SZK is closed under complement.---Strong closure properties of SZK that amount to constructing statistical zero-knowledge proofs for complex assertions built out of simpler assertions already shown to be in SZK.---New results about the various measures of "knowledge complexity," including a collapse in the hierarchy corresponding to knowledge complexity in the "hint" sense.---Algorithms for manipulating the statistical difference between efficiently samplable distributions, including transformations that "polarize" and "reverse" the statistical relationship between a pair of distributions.
ISSN 00045411
Age Range 18 to 22 years ♦ above 22 year
Educational Use Research
Education Level UG and PG
Learning Resource Type Article
Publisher Date 2003-03-01
Publisher Place New York
e-ISSN 1557735X
Journal Journal of the ACM (JACM)
Volume Number 50
Issue Number 2
Page Count 54
Starting Page 196
Ending Page 249


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Source: ACM Digital Library