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Author Namiki, Atsuko ♦ Yokoyama, Tadashi ♦ Tanaka, Yukie
Source Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ)
Content type Text
Publisher Springer
File Format HTM / HTML
Date Created 2018-09-20
Copyright Year ©2018
Language English
Subject Domain (in LCC) G ♦ QE1-996.5
Subject Keyword Fracturing ♦ Rheology ♦ Foam ♦ Science ♦ Permeability ♦ Geography. Anthropology. Recreation ♦ Geology ♦ Friction
Abstract Abstract The activity at Aso Volcano was mainly defined as a sequence of ash emissions and occasional ejections of scoria fragments with ash. Ash emissions sometimes started without notable explosions. The measured porosity of scoriae was as high as 0.94. The scoriae had a flattened shape with a low-porosity outer rim. To elucidate the eruptive conditions causing such ash emission and generation of scoriae, we conducted three series of measurements. First, we heated the high-porosity scoriae from Aso Volcano at 900–1150 °C and found that the heated scoriae shrunk by losing the gas in the bubbles. At the highest temperature, $1150\,^{\circ } \hbox {C}$ 1150∘C , bubbles segregated from the surrounding melt. Second, we conducted shear deformation experiments of scoriae and ash at 500–950 °C and found that the high-porosity scoriae easily fractured by low normal and shear stresses of $\sim 10^4 \, \hbox {Pa}$ ∼104Pa at a low temperature of 500 °C. We also found that the fine ash at a high temperature of 950 °C was sintered. Third, we measured the permeability of the sintered ash plate and unheated powder-like ash layer. The permeability of the ash plate is less than $2.5 \times 10^{-13} \, \hbox {m}^2$ 2.5×10-13m2 , while that for the ash powder is greater than $10^{-11} \, \hbox {m}^2$ 10-11m2 . The unheated ash particles could move in the container during the permeability measurements. This effect allowed the formation of pipe-like structures in the ash layer and increased its permeability. On the basis of these measurements, we infer the conditions inside the erupting conduit. There exists high-porosity magma foam in the conduit. The top of the magma foam is cold (<500 °C) and has a sufficiently high porosity (>0.7) to be fractured at a low stress level ($\sim 10^4 \, \hbox {Pa}$ ∼104Pa ). The fractured magma foam generates the ash layer above the magma foam. The gas flow from the underlying magma foam makes the high-permeability structure in the ash layer. Eventually, the bottom of the ash layer sinters to regulate the gas flow. The pressurized magma foam breaks the sintered ash layer. The breakage at the bottom of the ash layer may not cause a notable explosion but causes ash emission. The fragmented magma foam becomes high-porosity scoriae at a high temperature, which can generate the low-porosity outer rim by shrinkage and flatted shape.
ISSN 13438832
Age Range 18 to 22 years ♦ above 22 year
Educational Use Research
Education Level UG and PG ♦ Career/Technical Study
Learning Resource Type Article
Publisher Date 2018-09-01
e-ISSN 13438832
Journal Earth, Planets and Space
Volume Number 70
Issue Number 1
Page Count 21
Starting Page 1
Ending Page 21

Source: Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ)