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Author Gatt, Alfred ♦ Falzon, Owen ♦ Cassar, Kevin ♦ Ellul, Christian ♦ Camilleri, Kenneth P. ♦ Gauci, Jean ♦ Mizzi, Stephen ♦ Mizzi, Anabelle ♦ Sturgeon, Cassandra ♦ Camilleri, Liberato ♦ Chockalingam, Nachiappan ♦ Formosa, Cynthia
Editor Papanas, Nikolaos
Source Hindawi
Content type Text
Publisher Hindawi
File Format PDF
Copyright Year ©2018
Language English
Abstract Aim. To evaluate the potential of thermography as an assessment tool for the detection of foot complications by understanding the variations in temperature that occur in type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM). Methods. Participants were categorized according to a medical examination, ankle brachial index, doppler waveform analysis, and 10-gram monofilament testing into five groups: healthy adult, DM with no complications, DM with peripheral neuropathy, DM with neuroischaemia, and DM with peripheral arterial disease (PAD) groups. Thermographic imaging of the toes and forefeet was performed. Results. 43 neuroischaemic feet, 41 neuropathic feet, 58 PAD feet, 21 DM feet without complications, and 126 healthy feet were analyzed. The temperatures of the feet and toes were significantly higher in the complications group when compared to the healthy adult and DM healthy groups. The higher the temperatures of the foot in DM, the higher the probability that it is affected by neuropathy, neuroischaemia, or PAD. Conclusions. Significant differences in mean temperatures exist between participants who were healthy and those with DM with no known complications when compared to participants with neuroischaemia, neuropathy, or PAD. As foot temperature rises, so does the probability of the presence of complications of neuropathy, neuroischaemia, or peripheral arterial disease.
ISSN 16878337
Learning Resource Type Article
Publisher Date 2018-03-12
Rights License This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
e-ISSN 16878345
Journal International Journal of Endocrinology
Volume Number 2018
Page Count 7


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