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Author Krolewski, David M. ♦ Medina, Adriana ♦ Kerman, Ilan A. ♦ Bernard, Rene ♦ Burke, Sharon ♦ Thompson, Robert C. ♦ Bunney, William E. ♦ Schatzberg, Alan F. ♦ Myers, Richard M. ♦ Akil, Huda ♦ Jones, Edward G. ♦ Watson, Stanley J.
Source World Health Organization (WHO)-Global Index Medicus
Content type Text
Publisher Wiley
File Format HTM / HTML
Language English
Difficulty Level Medium
Subject Domain (in DDC) Natural sciences & mathematics ♦ Chemistry & allied sciences ♦ Life sciences; biology ♦ Physiology & related subjects ♦ Biochemistry ♦ Genetics and evolution ♦ Natural history of organisms ♦ Technology ♦ Medicine & health ♦ Human anatomy, cytology, histology ♦ Human physiology ♦ Pharmacology and therapeutics ♦ Diseases ♦ Manufacture for specific uses ♦ Precision instruments & other devices
Subject Domain (in MeSH) Nervous System ♦ Anatomy ♦ Eukaryota ♦ Organisms ♦ Hormones, Hormone Substitutes, and Hormone Antagonists ♦ Enzymes and Coenzymes ♦ Amino Acids, Peptides, and Proteins ♦ Nucleic Acids, Nucleotides, and Nucleosides ♦ Chemicals and Drugs ♦ Diagnosis ♦ Investigative Techniques ♦ Analytical, Diagnostic and Therapeutic Techniques and Equipment ♦ Genetic Phenomena ♦ Biological Sciences ♦ Persons ♦ Persons
Subject Keyword Discipline Neurology ♦ Arginine Vasopressin ♦ Metabolism ♦ Corticotropin-releasing Hormone ♦ Gene Expression Regulation ♦ Physiology ♦ Histidine Decarboxylase ♦ Hypothalamic Hormones ♦ Hypothalamus ♦ Intracellular Signaling Peptides And Proteins ♦ Melanins ♦ Neuropeptides ♦ Pituitary Hormones ♦ Adult ♦ Aged ♦ Genetics ♦ Brain Mapping ♦ Female ♦ Gene Expression Profiling ♦ Humans ♦ Cytology ♦ Imaging, Three-dimensional ♦ Methods ♦ Male ♦ Middle Aged ♦ Neurons ♦ Orexins ♦ Rna, Messenger ♦ Journal Article ♦ Research Support, N.i.h., Extramural ♦ Research Support, Non-u.s. Gov't
Abstract The hypothalamus regulates numerous autonomic responses and behaviors. The neuroactive substances corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF), arginine-vasopressin (AVP), histidine decarboxylase (HDC), melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH), and orexin/hypocretins (ORX) produced in the hypothalamus mediate a subset of these processes. Although the expression patterns of these genes have been well studied in rodents, less is known about them in humans. We combined classical histological techniques with in situ hybridization histochemistry to produce both 2D and 3D images and to visually align and quantify expression of the genes for these substances in nuclei of the human hypothalamus. The hypothalamus was arbitrarily divided into rostral, intermediate, and caudal regions. The rostral region, containing the paraventricular nucleus (PVN), was defined by discrete localization of CRF- and AVP-expressing neurons, whereas distinct relationships between HDC, MCH, and ORX mRNA-expressing neurons delineated specific levels within the intermediate and caudal regions. Quantitative mRNA signal intensity measurements revealed no significant differences in overall CRF or AVP expression at any rostrocaudal level of the PVN. HDC mRNA expression was highest at the level of the premammillary area, which included the dorsomedial and tuberomammillary nuclei as well as the dorsolateral hypothalamic area. In addition, the overall intensity of hybridization signal exhibited by both MCH and ORX mRNA-expressing neurons peaked in distinct intermediate and caudal hypothalamic regions. These results suggest that human hypothalamic neurons involved in the regulation of the HPA axis display distinct neurochemical patterns that may encompass multiple local nuclei.
Description Country affiliation: United States
Author Affiliation: Krolewski DM ( Molecular & Behavioral Neuroscience Institute, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109, USA.)
ISSN 00219967
Educational Role Student ♦ Teacher
Age Range above 22 year
Educational Use Reading ♦ Research ♦ Self Learning
Interactivity Type Expositive
Education Level UG and PG
Learning Resource Type Article
Publisher Date 2010-11-15
Publisher Place United States
e-ISSN 10969861
Journal Journal of Comparative Neurology
Volume Number 518
Issue Number 22


Source: WHO-Global Index Medicus