|Author||Willenberg, Rafer ♦ Steward, Oswald|
|Source||World Health Organization (WHO)-Global Index Medicus|
|File Format||HTM / HTML|
|Subject Domain (in DDC)||Philosophy & psychology ♦ Psychology ♦ Natural sciences & mathematics ♦ Chemistry & allied sciences ♦ Life sciences; biology ♦ Physiology & related subjects ♦ Biochemistry ♦ Natural history of organisms ♦ Technology ♦ Medicine & health ♦ Human anatomy, cytology, histology ♦ Human physiology ♦ Incidence & prevention of disease ♦ Pharmacology and therapeutics ♦ Diseases ♦ Manufacture for specific uses ♦ Precision instruments & other devices|
|Subject Domain (in MeSH)||Nervous System ♦ Anatomy ♦ Eukaryota ♦ Organisms ♦ Nervous System Diseases ♦ Pathological Conditions, Signs and Symptoms ♦ Diseases ♦ Organic Chemicals ♦ Heterocyclic Compounds ♦ Macromolecular Substances ♦ Enzymes and Coenzymes ♦ Amino Acids, Peptides, and Proteins ♦ Chemicals and Drugs ♦ Diagnosis ♦ Analytical, Diagnostic and Therapeutic Techniques and Equipment ♦ Psychological Phenomena and Processes ♦ Psychiatry and Psychology ♦ Musculoskeletal and Neural Physiological Phenomena ♦ Biological Sciences|
|Subject Keyword||Discipline Neurology ♦ Nerve Regeneration ♦ Physiology ♦ Pyramidal Tracts ♦ Metabolism ♦ Physiopathology ♦ Wallerian Degeneration ♦ Animals ♦ Bacterial Proteins ♦ Genetics ♦ Biotin ♦ Analogs & Derivatives ♦ Brain Injuries ♦ Complications ♦ Pathology ♦ Dextrans ♦ Female ♦ Functional Laterality ♦ Homeodomain Proteins ♦ Imaging, Three-dimensional ♦ Luminescent Proteins ♦ Male ♦ Mice ♦ Mice, Inbred C57bl ♦ Mice, Transgenic ♦ Microscopy, Confocal ♦ Motor Cortex ♦ Neurons ♦ Pten Phosphohydrolase ♦ Stilbamidines ♦ Transcription Factors ♦ Etiology ♦ Journal Article ♦ Research Support, N.i.h., Extramural ♦ Research Support, Non-u.s. Gov't|
|Abstract||Studies of axon regeneration in the spinal cord often assess regeneration of the corticospinal tract (CST). Emx1-Cre x Thy1-STOP-YFP mice have been reported to have yellow fluorescent protein (YFP) selectively expressed in forebrain neurons leading to genetic labeling of CST axons in the spinal cord, and it was suggested that these CST-YFP mice would be useful for studies of CST regeneration. Because regeneration past a lesion may involve only a few axons, the presence of labeled non-CST axons compromises interpretation. We show here that in CST-YFP mice, some YFP-labeled axons are not from the CST. Specifically, YFP-labeled axons are present in regions beyond those with anterogradely labeled CST axons, most YFP-labeled axons beyond established CST locations do not undergo Wallerian degeneration following a large lesion of the sensorimotor cortex, some rubrospinal and reticulospinal neurons are labeled with YFP, and some YFP-labeled cells in the spinal gray matter have YFP-labeled projections into the spinal cord white matter. We further demonstrate that the density of YFP-labeled axon arbors hinders tracing of single axons to their point of origin in the main descending tracts. In light of recent advances in 3D imaging for visualizing axons in unsectioned blocks of spinal cord, we also assessed CST-YFP mice for 3D imaging and found that YFP fluorescence in CST-YFP mice is faint for clearing-based 3D imaging in comparison with fluorescence in Thy1-YFP-H mice and fluorescence of mini-ruby biotinylated dextran amine (BDA). Overall, the nonspecific and faint YFP labeling in CST-YFP mice limits their utility for assessments of CST axon regeneration.|
|Description||Author Affiliation: Willenberg R ( Reeve-Irvine Research Center, University of California at Irvine, Irvine, California, 92697.); Steward O ( Department of Anatomy & Neurobiology, University of California at Irvine, Irvine, California, 92697.)|
|Educational Role||Student ♦ Teacher|
|Age Range||above 22 year|
|Educational Use||Reading ♦ Research ♦ Self Learning|
|Education Level||UG and PG|
|Learning Resource Type||Article|
|Publisher Place||United States|
|Journal||Journal of Comparative Neurology|
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