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Author Raghanti, Mary Ann ♦ Edler, Melissa K. ♦ Stephenson, Alexa R. ♦ Wilson, Lakaléa J. ♦ Hopkins, William D. ♦ Ely, John J. ♦ Erwin, Joseph M. ♦ Jacobs, Bob ♦ Hof, Patrick R. ♦ Sherwood, Chet C.
Source World Health Organization (WHO)-Global Index Medicus
Content type Text
Publisher Wiley
File Format HTM / HTML
Language English
Difficulty Level Medium
Subject Domain (in DDC) Technology ♦ Medicine & health ♦ Diseases
Subject Keyword Discipline Neurology
Abstract The dopaminergic innervation of the striatum has been implicated in learning processes and in the development of human speech and language. Several lines of evidence suggest that evolutionary changes in dopaminergic afferents of the striatum may be associated with uniquely human cognitive and behavioral abilities, including the association of the human-specific sequence of the FOXP2 gene with decreased dopamine in the dorsomedial striatum of mice. To examine this possibility, we quantified the density of tyrosine hydroxylase-immunoreactive axons as a measure of dopaminergic innervation within five basal ganglia regions in humans, great apes, and New and Old World monkeys. Our results indicate that humans differ from nonhuman primate species in having a significant increase in dopaminergic innervation selectively localized to the medial caudate nucleus. This region of the striatum is highly interconnected, receiving afferents from multiple neocortical regions, and supports behavioral and cognitive flexibility. The medial caudate nucleus also shows hyperactivity in humans lacking a functional FOXP2 allele and exhibits altered dopamine concentrations in humanized Foxp2 mice. Additionally, striatal dopaminergic input was not altered in chimpanzees that used socially learned attention-getting sounds versus those that did not. This evidence indicates that the increase in dopamine innervation of the medial caudate nucleus in humans is a species-typical characteristic not associated with experience-dependent plasticity. The specificity of this increase may be related to the degree of convergence from cortical areas within this region of the striatum and may also be involved in human speech and language. J. Comp. Neurol. 524:2117-2129, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Description Author Affiliation: Raghanti MA ( Department of Anthropology, Kent State University, Kent, Ohio, 44242.); Edler MK ( School of Biomedical Sciences, Kent State University, Kent, Ohio, 44242.); Stephenson AR ( School of Biomedical Sciences, Kent State University, Kent, Ohio, 44242.); Wilson LJ ( Department of Anthropology, Kent State University, Kent, Ohio, 44242.); Hopkins WD ( Department of Anthropology, Kent State University, Kent, Ohio, 44242.); Ely JJ ( Neuroscience Institute and Language Research Center, Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA, 30322.); Erwin JM ( MAEBIOS, Alamogordo, New Mexico, 88310.); Jacobs B ( Department of Anthropology and Center for the Advanced Study of Human Paleobiology, The George Washington University, Washington, DC, 20052.); Hof PR ( California National Primate Research Center, University of California, Davis, California, 95616.); Sherwood CC ( Laboratory of Quantitative Neuromorphology, Psychology, Colorado College, Colorado Springs, Colorado, 80903.)
ISSN 00219967
Educational Role Student ♦ Teacher
Age Range above 22 year
Educational Use Reading ♦ Research ♦ Self Learning
Interactivity Type Expositive
Education Level UG and PG
Learning Resource Type Article
Publisher Date 2016-07-01
Publisher Place United States
e-ISSN 10969861
Journal Journal of Comparative Neurology
Volume Number 524
Issue Number 10


Source: WHO-Global Index Medicus