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Author Spirovski, Darko ♦ Li, Qun ♦ Pilowsky, Paul M.
Source World Health Organization (WHO)-Global Index Medicus
Content type Text
Publisher Wiley
File Format HTM / HTML
Language English
Difficulty Level Medium
Subject Domain (in DDC) Natural sciences & mathematics ♦ Chemistry & allied sciences ♦ Life sciences; biology ♦ Biochemistry ♦ Natural history of organisms ♦ Technology ♦ Medicine & health ♦ Human anatomy, cytology, histology ♦ Pharmacology and therapeutics ♦ Diseases
Subject Domain (in MeSH) Nervous System ♦ Anatomy ♦ Eukaryota ♦ Organisms ♦ Pathological Conditions, Signs and Symptoms ♦ Diseases ♦ Enzymes and Coenzymes ♦ Amino Acids, Peptides, and Proteins ♦ Chemicals and Drugs
Subject Keyword Discipline Neurology ♦ Brain Stem ♦ Cytology ♦ Metabolism ♦ Chemoreceptor Cells ♦ Galanin ♦ Neurons ♦ Respiratory Center ♦ Animals ♦ Hypercapnia ♦ Anoxia ♦ Male ♦ Rats ♦ Rats, Sprague-dawley ♦ Receptors, Neurokinin-1 ♦ Tyrosine 3-monooxygenase ♦ Journal Article ♦ Research Support, Non-u.s. Gov't
Abstract The ventrolateral medulla oblongata (VLM) of the brainstem contains neurochemically heterogeneous neurons that have a critical role in cardiovascular and respiratory regulation. Previous anatomical studies have shown the existence of galanin immunoreactivity in the medulla oblongata, but a detailed characterization is lacking. In this study, we demonstrate three populations of preprogalanin mRNA (PPG)-expressing neurons in the VLM of the adult, male Sprague-Dawley rat: a retrotrapezoid nucleus (RTN) group, a group in the rostral ventral respiratory group (rVRG), and a subpopulation of A1 neurons. PPG(+) neurons express tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) only in the A1 region of the VLM, where approximately 56% of PPG(+) neurons contain TH (79 ± 14; n = 4). PPG(+) neurons do not express vesicular acetylcholine transporter (vAChT) in the VLM (n = 3). However, 33% of PPG(+) neurons contain neurokinin-1 receptor (NK1R) in the rVRG (126 ± 12; n = 12), accounting for â ¼28% of all NK1R(+) neurons in the region. Retrogradely transported cholera toxin B injected into the thoracic spinal cord (T1) revealed that bulbospinal PPG(+) neurons are present in the rVRG (n = 3; â ¼26% of PPG(+) neurons). PPG(+) neurons in the RTN and locus coeruleus are selectively activated (Fos) following 2 hours of exposure to hypercapnia, but not by hypoxia. Neurons in the A1, nucleus of the solitary tract, and dorsomedial hypothalamus are activated by both chemoreceptor stimuli. The results suggest that PPG(+) neurons represent a population of brainstem neurons that play a critical and differential role in the chemoreflex responses to hypoxia and hypercapnia.
Description Country affiliation: Australia
Author Affiliation: Spirovski D ( The Australian School of Advanced Medicine, Macquarie University, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia.)
ISSN 00219967
Educational Role Student ♦ Teacher
Age Range above 22 year
Educational Use Reading ♦ Research ♦ Self Learning
Interactivity Type Expositive
Education Level UG and PG
Learning Resource Type Article
Publisher Date 2012-01-01
Publisher Place United States
e-ISSN 10969861
Journal Journal of Comparative Neurology
Volume Number 520
Issue Number 1


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Source: WHO-Global Index Medicus