|Author||Sivashanmugam, A. ♦ Premkumar, T. ♦ Renganathan, N. G. ♦ Gopukumar, S. ♦ Wohlfahrt-Mehrens, M. ♦ Grche, J.|
|Source||CSIR-Central Electrochemical Research Institute|
|Subject Domain (in DDC)||Technology ♦ Engineering & allied operations ♦ Applied physics|
|Subject Keyword||Lithium batteries ♦ Electrochemical Power Sources|
|Abstract||Anodes derived from oxides of tin have, of late, been of considerable interest because, in principle, they can store over twice as much lithium as graphite. A nanometric matrix of Li2O generated in situ by the electrochemical reduction of SnO2 can provide a facile environment for the reversible alloying of lithium with tin to a maximum stoichiometry of Li4.4Sn. However, the generation of the matrix leads to a high first-cycle irreversible capacity. With a view to increasing the reversible capacity as well as to reduce the irreversible capacity and capacity fade upon cycling, tin–tin oxide mixtures were investigated. SnO2, synthesized by a chemical precipitation method, was mixed with tin powder at two compositions, viz., 1:2 and 2:1, ball-milled and subjected to cycling studies. A mixture of composition Sn:SnO2 = 1:2 exhibited a specific capacity of 549 mAh g−1 (13% higher than that for SnO2) with an irreversible capacity, which was 7% lower than that for SnO2 and a capacity fade of 1.4 mAh g−1 cycle−1. Electrodes with this composition also exhibited a coulombic efficiency of 99% in the 40 cycles. It appears that a matrix in which tin can be distributed without aggregation is essential for realizing tin oxide anodes with high cyclability.|
|Education Level||UG and PG|
|Learning Resource Type||Article|
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