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Author Wilf, P.
Source World Health Organization (WHO)-Global Index Medicus
Content type Text
Publisher Wiley
File Format HTM / HTML
Language English
Difficulty Level Medium
Subject Domain (in DDC) Social sciences ♦ Sociology & anthropology ♦ Natural sciences & mathematics ♦ Life sciences; biology ♦ Physiology & related subjects ♦ Natural history of organisms ♦ Technology ♦ Medicine & health ♦ Human anatomy, cytology, histology ♦ Human physiology
Subject Domain (in MeSH) Plant Structures ♦ Anatomy ♦ Eukaryota ♦ Organisms ♦ Biological Phenomena ♦ Biological Sciences ♦ Social Sciences ♦ Anthropology, Education, Sociology and Social Phenomena
Subject Keyword Discipline Botany ♦ Climate ♦ Extinction, Biological ♦ Food Chain ♦ Fossils ♦ Insects ♦ Physiology ♦ Plant Leaves ♦ Parasitology ♦ Animals ♦ Journal Article ♦ Research Support, Non-u.s. Gov't ♦ Review
Abstract Plants and herbivorous insects have dominated terrestrial ecosystems for over 300 million years. Uniquely in the fossil record, foliage with well-preserved insect damage offers abundant and diverse information both about producers and about ecological and sometimes taxonomic groups of consumers. These data are ideally suited to investigate food web response to environmental perturbations, and they represent an invaluable deep-time complement to neoecological studies of global change. Correlations between feeding diversity and temperature, between herbivory and leaf traits that are modulated by climate, and between insect diversity and plant diversity can all be investigated in deep time. To illustrate, I emphasize recent work on the time interval from the latest Cretaceous through the middle Eocene (67-47 million years ago (Ma)), including two significant events that affected life: the end-Cretaceous mass extinction (65.5 Ma) and its ensuing recovery; and globally warming temperatures across the Paleocene-Eocene boundary (55.8 Ma). Climatic effects predicted from neoecology generally hold true in these deep-time settings. Rising temperature is associated with increased herbivory in multiple studies, a result with major predictive importance for current global warming. Diverse floras are usually associated with diverse insect damage; however, recovery from the end-Cretaceous extinction reveals uncorrelated plant and insect diversity as food webs rebuilt chaotically from a drastically simplified state. Calibration studies from living forests are needed to improve interpretation of the fossil data.
Description Country affiliation: United States
Author Affiliation: Wilf P ( Department of Geosciences, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802, USA. pwilf@psu.edu)
ISSN 0028646X
Educational Role Student ♦ Teacher
Age Range above 22 year
Educational Use Reading ♦ Research ♦ Self Learning
Interactivity Type Expositive
Education Level UG and PG
Learning Resource Type Article
Publisher Date 2008-01-01
Publisher Place Great Britain (UK)
e-ISSN 14698137
Journal New Phytologist
Volume Number 178
Issue Number 3


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Source: WHO-Global Index Medicus