|Author||Hecker, S. S. ♦ Mullen, M. F. ♦ Toevs, J. W.|
|Source||United States Department of Energy Office of Scientific and Technical Information|
|Subject Keyword||NUCLEAR FUELS ♦ NUCLEAR MATERIALS MANAGEMENT ♦ SAFEGUARDS ♦ USA ♦ RUSSIAN FEDERATION ♦ BILATERAL AGREEMENTS ♦ MODIFICATIONS ♦ SECURITY ♦ SCIENTIFIC PERSONNEL ♦ NUCLEAR WEAPONS DISMANTLEMENT|
|Abstract||In the summer of 1994, the US Department of Energy (DOE) initiated a joint program with Russia and the other states of the FSU (former Soviet Union) to help them upgrade their nuclear materials safeguards. The so-called materials protection, control, and accounting (MPC and A) program was based on a novel laboratory-to-laboratory approach, taking advantage of the trust that DOE laboratory scientists and engineers had developed with their Russian nuclear laboratory counterparts in joint scientific collaborations dating back to 1992. This approach proved very successful in tackling the extremely sensitive issue of how the United States could help Russia modernize its safeguards over its military and civilian nuclear materials. However, in addition to the great progress made during the past 4 yr, those involved in the effort have also begun to realize the immensity of the job. Although the current MPC and A program is providing immediate security enhancements, the US must begin now to lay the foundation for a sustainable system of safeguards--one that the FSU states will be able to support themselves over the long term. In addition, measures must be taken to reduce the great hardship experienced by the workers and residents of the nuclear weapons complex (most of whom still reside in the ten closed nuclear cities of Russia). No system of safeguards will work over the long term if the custodians continue to experience the stress they face currently in these nuclear cities. Finally, the amount of weapons-usable material eventually must be permanently reduced through disposition or other use of these materials. These are the key elements of the critical next steps that the authors see for US engagement with Russia on the issue of nuclear materials. Above all, they view the protection of all nuclear materials all of the time in Russia and the other states of the FSU to be the most important and most urgent step -- which they call the ``price of admission`` for all nuclear collaborations.|
|Learning Resource Type||Article|
|Publisher Place||United States|
|Journal||Transactions of the American Nuclear Society|
|Technical Publication No.||CONF-981106-|
Ministry of Human Resource Development (MHRD) under its National Mission on Education through Information and Communication Technology (NMEICT) has initiated the National Digital Library of India (NDLI) project to develop a framework of virtual repository of learning resources with a single-window search facility. Filtered and federated searching is employed to facilitate focused searching so that learners can find out the right resource with least effort and in minimum time. NDLI is designed to hold content of any language and provides interface support for leading vernacular languages, (currently Hindi, Bengali and several other languages are available). It is designed to provide support for all academic levels including researchers and life-long learners, all disciplines, all popular forms of access devices and differently-abled learners. It is being developed to help students to prepare for entrance and competitive examinations, to enable people to learn and prepare from best practices from all over the world and to facilitate researchers to perform inter-linked exploration from multiple sources. It is being developed at Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur.
NDLI is a conglomeration of freely available or institutionally contributed or donated or publisher managed contents. Almost all these contents are hosted and accessed from respective sources. The responsibility for authenticity, relevance, completeness, accuracy, reliability and suitability of these contents rests with the respective organization and NDLI has no responsibility or liability for these. Every effort is made to keep the NDLI portal up and running smoothly unless there are some unavoidable technical issues.
Ministry of Human Resource Development (MHRD), through its National Mission on Education through Information and Communication Technology (NMEICT), has sponsored and funded the National Digital Library of India (NDLI) project.
For any issue or feedback, please write to firstname.lastname@example.org