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Author Ramirez, Norma E. ♦ Wang, Ping ♦ Lejeune, Jeff ♦ Shipitalo, Martin J. ♦ Ward, Lucy A. ♦ Sreevatsan, Srinand ♦ Dick, Warren A.
Source World Health Organization (WHO)-Global Index Medicus
Content type Text
Publisher American Society of Agronomy
File Format HTM / HTML
Language English
Difficulty Level Medium
Subject Domain (in DDC) Natural sciences & mathematics ♦ Chemistry & allied sciences ♦ Life sciences; biology ♦ Physiology & related subjects ♦ Biochemistry ♦ Natural history of organisms ♦ Technology ♦ Medicine & health ♦ Human anatomy, cytology, histology ♦ Human physiology ♦ Pharmacology and therapeutics ♦ Diseases ♦ Agriculture & related technologies ♦ Techniques, equipment & materials
Subject Domain (in MeSH) Cells ♦ Anatomy ♦ Eukaryota ♦ Organisms ♦ Inorganic Chemicals ♦ Complex Mixtures ♦ Chemicals and Drugs ♦ Biological Phenomena ♦ Biological Sciences ♦ Natural Science Disciplines ♦ Physical Sciences ♦ Technology, Industry, and Agriculture ♦ Technology and Food and Beverages
Subject Keyword Discipline Environmental Health ♦ Agriculture ♦ Methods ♦ Cryptosporidium Parvum ♦ Isolation & Purification ♦ Soil Microbiology ♦ Animals ♦ Cattle ♦ Manure ♦ Microbiology ♦ Oocysts ♦ Rain ♦ Soil ♦ Water ♦ Journal Article
Abstract Most waterborne outbreaks of cryptosporidiosis have been attributed to agricultural sources due to the high prevalence of Cryptosporidium oocysts in animal wastes and manure spreading on farmlands. No-till, an effective conservation practice, often results in soil having higher water infiltration and percolation rates than conventional tillage. We treated six undisturbed no-till and six tilled soil blocks (30 by 30 by 30 cm) with 1 L liquid dairy manure containing 10(5) C. parvum oocysts per milliliter to test the effect of tillage and rainfall on oocyst transport. The blocks were subjected to rainfall treatments consisting of 5 mm or 30 mm in 30 min. Leachate was collected from the base of the blocks in 35-mL increments using a 64-cell grid lysimeter. Even before any rain was applied, approximately 300 mL of water from the liquid manure (30% of that applied) was transported through the no-till soil, but none through the tilled blocks. After rain was applied, a greater number and percentage of first leachate samples from the no-till soil blocks compared to the tilled blocks tested positive for Cryptosporidium oocysts. In contrast to leachate, greater numbers of oocysts were recovered from the tilled soil, itself, than from the no-till soil. Although tillage was the most important factor affecting oocyst transport, rainfall timing and intensity were also important. To minimize transport of Cryptosporidium in no-till fields, manure should be applied at least 48 h before heavy rainfall is anticipated or methods of disrupting the direct linkage of surface soil to drains, via macropores, need to be used.
Description Country affiliation: United States
Author Affiliation: Ramirez NE ( Food Animal Health Research Program, The Ohio State University, Wooster, OH 44691, USA.)
ISSN 00472425
Educational Role Student ♦ Teacher
Age Range above 22 year
Educational Use Reading ♦ Research ♦ Self Learning
Interactivity Type Expositive
Education Level UG and PG
Learning Resource Type Article
Publisher Date 2009-11-01
Publisher Place United States
e-ISSN 15372537
Journal Journal of Environment Quality
Volume Number 38
Issue Number 6


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Source: WHO-Global Index Medicus