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Author Cook, Kimberly L. ♦ Rothrock, Michael J. ♦ Warren, Jason G. ♦ Sistani, Karamat R. ♦ Moore, Philip A.
Source World Health Organization (WHO)-Global Index Medicus
Content type Text
Publisher American Society of Agronomy
File Format HTM / HTML
Language English
Difficulty Level Medium
Subject Domain (in DDC) Natural sciences & mathematics ♦ Chemistry & allied sciences ♦ Life sciences; biology ♦ Biochemistry ♦ Natural history of organisms ♦ Microorganisms, fungi & algae ♦ Technology ♦ Medicine & health ♦ Pharmacology and therapeutics ♦ Diseases ♦ Agriculture & related technologies ♦ Techniques, equipment & materials
Subject Domain (in MeSH) Eukaryota ♦ Bacteria ♦ Organisms ♦ Inorganic Chemicals ♦ Complex Mixtures ♦ Chemicals and Drugs ♦ Technology, Industry, and Agriculture ♦ Non-Medical Public and Private Facilities ♦ Technology and Food and Beverages
Subject Keyword Discipline Environmental Health ♦ Alum Compounds ♦ Pharmacology ♦ Bacteria ♦ Drug Effects ♦ Chickens ♦ Floors And Floorcoverings ♦ Ammonia ♦ Metabolism ♦ Animal Husbandry ♦ Methods ♦ Animals ♦ Conservation Of Natural Resources ♦ Fungi ♦ Housing, Animal ♦ Manure ♦ Microbiology ♦ Journal Article ♦ Research Support, U.s. Gov't, Non-p.h.s.
Abstract Microbial mineralization of urea and uric acid in poultry litter results in the production of ammonia, which can lead to decreased poultry performance, malodorous emissions, and loss of poultry litter value as a fertilizer. Despite the fact that this is a microbial process, little is known about how the microbial populations, especially ammonia-producing (ureolytic) organisms in poultry litter, respond to litter amendments such as aluminum sulfate (Al(2)(SO(4))(3).14H(2)O; alum). The goal of this study was to measure the temporal changes in total bacterial and fungal populations and urease-producing microorganisms in nontreated litter or litter treated with 10% alum. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction was used to target the bacterial 16S rRNA gene, the fungal 18S rRNA gene, or the urease gene of bacterial and fungal ammonia producers in a poultry litter incubation study. Nontreated poultry litter had relatively high total (2.8 +/- 0.8 x 10(10) cells g(-1) litter) and ureolytic (2.8 +/- 1.3 x 10(8) cells g(-1) litter) bacterial populations. Alum treatment reduced the total bacterial population by 50% and bacterial urease producers by 90% within 4 wk. In contrast, at 16 wk after alum treatment, the fungal population was three orders of magnitude higher in alum-treated litter than in nontreated litter (3.5 +/- 0.8 x 10(7) cells g(-1) litter and 5.5 +/- 2.5 x 10(4) cells g(-1) litter, respectively). The decrease in pH produced by alum treatment is believed to inhibit bacterial populations and favor growth of fungi that may be responsible for the mineralization of organic nitrogen in alum-treated litters.
Description Country affiliation: United States
Author Affiliation: Cook KL ( Animal Waste Management Research Unit, USDA-ARS, 230 Bennett Lane, Bowling Green, KY 42104, USA. kim.cook@ars.usda.gov)
ISSN 00472425
Educational Role Student ♦ Teacher
Age Range above 22 year
Educational Use Reading ♦ Research ♦ Self Learning
Interactivity Type Expositive
Education Level UG and PG
Learning Resource Type Article
Publisher Date 2008-11-01
Publisher Place United States
e-ISSN 15372537
Journal Journal of Environment Quality
Volume Number 37
Issue Number 6


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Source: WHO-Global Index Medicus