|Author||Styrikovich, M. A. ♦ Martynova, O. I.|
|Source||United States Department of Energy Office of Scientific and Technical Information|
|Subject Keyword||REACTOR TECHNOLOGY ♦ ALUMINUM ♦ BOILING ♦ CANNING ♦ CHROMIUM OXIDES ♦ COBALT OXIDES ♦ COMPOUNDS ♦ CONTAMINATION ♦ COOLANT LOOPS ♦ COPPER OXIDES ♦ CORROSION ♦ ELECTROLYTES ♦ ELEMENTS ♦ EVAPORATION ♦ FAILURES ♦ FISSION PRODUCTS ♦ FUEL ELEMENTS ♦ HIGH TEMPERATURE ♦ HUMIDITY ♦ IMPURITIES ♦ ION EXCHANGE ♦ IRON OXIDES ♦ LEAKS ♦ MANGANESE OXIDES ♦ MECHANICAL STRUCTURES ♦ METALS ♦ POWER PLANTS ♦ PRESSURE ♦ RADIOACTIVITY ♦ REACTOR CORE ♦ REACTOR SAFETY ♦ RESIDUES ♦ SOLIDS ♦ SOLUBILITY ♦ SOLUTIONS ♦ STEAM ♦ SUPERHEATING ♦ SURFACES ♦ VAPORS ♦ WATER ♦ WATER COOLANT ♦ ZINC OXIDES ♦ ZIRCONIUM|
|Abstract||Up to now, deposition of radioactive materials from the vapor phase did not cause any serious contamination of single-loop atomic power stations. However, use of superheated steam in such systems presents a definite hazard because the wet steam does not wash off the deposited solids and the solubility of the various impurities in the vapor phase is greatly increased. In view of the usual high purity of the feed water, the impurities found in it usually consist of the corrosion products of the structural metals, specifically, the oxides of Fe, Cr, Co, Cu, Mn, and Zn and depending on the cladding used, of Zr or Al, together with the fission products which might have leaked out of the fuel elements. The contamination becomes quite marked at pressures exceeding 140 atm. The transfer coefficients from the aqueous to the vapor phase are difficult to calculate because they may vary for various compounds of the same element; they depend primarily on the high-temperature solubility of the compound and on the pressure. Studies carried out at the Moscow Energy Institute indicated that an increase in the vapor pressure results in an increase of the transfer from the aqueous to the vapor phase. For some weak electrolytes, pressures of about 60 atm exert a positive effect. The steam is contaminated only by the truly steam- soluble portion of the total dissolved material in the water phase. Further studies are needed before it is possible to specify the purity of feed water of boiling reactors. (TTT)|
|Learning Resource Type||Article|
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