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Author Ewang, Chunmei ♦ Elam, Waiping ♦ Ezheng, Dong ♦ Eyew, D.T. ♦ Exu, Jie
Source Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ)
Content type Text
Publisher Frontiers Media S.A.
File Format HTM / HTML
Date Created 2014-05-22
Copyright Year ©2013
Language English
Subject Domain (in LCC) RC321-571 ♦ QM1-695
Subject Keyword Biological psychiatry ♦ Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) ♦ Neurosciences ♦ Human anatomy ♦ Addiction ♦ Internal medicine ♦ Medicine ♦ Brain ♦ Neuropsychiatry ♦ Ketamine ♦ Science ♦ Atrophy ♦ Lesion
Abstract Ketamine, a known antagonist of N-methyl-D-aspartic (NMDA) glutamate receptors, had been used as an anesthetic particularly for pediatric or for cardiac patients. Unfortunately, ketamine has become an abusive drug in many parts of the world while chronic and prolonged usage led to damages of many organs including the brain. However, no studies on possible damages in the brains induced by chronic ketamine abuse have been documented in the human via neuroimaging. This paper described for the first time via employing magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) the changes in ketamine addicts of 0.5 to 12 years and illustrated the possible brain regions susceptible to ketamine abuse. Twenty-one ketamine addicts were recruited and the results showed that the lesions in the brains of ketamine addicts were located in many regions which appeared 2-4 years after ketamine addiction. Cortical atrophy was usually evident in the frontal, parietal or occipital cortices of addicts. Such study confirmed that many brain regions in the human were susceptible to chronic ketamine injury and presented a diffuse effect of ketamine on the brain which might differ from other central nervous system (CNS) drugs, such as cocaine, heroin and methamphetamine.
ISSN 16625129
Age Range 18 to 22 years ♦ above 22 year
Educational Use Research
Education Level UG and PG ♦ Career/Technical Study
Learning Resource Type Article
Publisher Date 2013-07-01
e-ISSN 16625129
Journal Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
Volume Number 7


Source: Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ)