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Author Eriksson, David
Source Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ)
Content type Text
Publisher Frontiers Media S.A.
File Format HTM / HTML
Date Created 2016-10-04
Copyright Year ©2016
Language English
Subject Domain (in LCC) RC321-571
Subject Keyword Neuropsychiatry ♦ Biological psychiatry ♦ Neurosciences ♦ Contextual input ♦ Optogenetic inhibition ♦ Perturbation ♦ Internal medicine ♦ Side effects ♦ Medicine ♦ Controlled perturbation
Abstract To test the importance of a certain cell type or brain area it is common to make a lack of function experiment in which the neuronal population of interest is inhibited. Here we review physiological and methodological constraints for making controlled perturbations using the corticothalamic circuit as an example. The brain with its many types of cells and rich interconnectivity offers many paths through which a perturbation can spread within a short time. To understand the side effects of the perturbation one should record from those paths. We find that ephaptic effects, gap-junctions, and fast chemical synapses are so fast that they can react to the perturbation during the few milliseconds it takes for an opsin to change the membrane potential. The slow chemical synapses, astrocytes, extracellular ions and vascular signals, will continue to give their physiological input for around 20 milliseconds before they also react to the perturbation. Although we show that some pathways can react within milliseconds the strength/speed reported in this review should be seen as an upper bound since we have omitted how polysynaptic signals are attenuated. Thus the number of additional recordings that has to be made to control for the perturbation side effects is expected to be fewer than proposed here. To summarize, the reviewed literature not only suggests that it is possible to make controlled lack of function experiments, but, it also suggests that such a lack of function experiment can be used to measure the context of local neural computations.
ISSN 16625110
Age Range 18 to 22 years ♦ above 22 year
Educational Use Research
Education Level UG and PG ♦ Career/Technical Study
Learning Resource Type Article
Publisher Date 2016-08-01
e-ISSN 16625110
Journal Frontiers in Neural Circuits
Volume Number 10


Source: Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ)