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Author Bischof, Sylvain ♦ Umhang, Martin ♦ Eicke, Simona ♦ Streb, Sebastian ♦ Qi, Weihong ♦ Zeeman, Samuel C.
Source World Health Organization (WHO)-Global Index Medicus
Content type Text
Publisher American Society of Plant Biologists
File Format HTM / HTML
Language English
Difficulty Level Medium
Subject Domain (in DDC) Natural sciences & mathematics ♦ Chemistry & allied sciences ♦ Life sciences; biology ♦ Physiology & related subjects ♦ Biochemistry ♦ Genetics and evolution ♦ Natural history of organisms ♦ Technology ♦ Medicine & health ♦ Human anatomy, cytology, histology ♦ Human physiology ♦ Pharmacology and therapeutics ♦ Diseases ♦ Manufacture for specific uses ♦ Precision instruments & other devices
Subject Domain (in MeSH) Plant Structures ♦ Anatomy ♦ Eukaryota ♦ Organisms ♦ Macromolecular Substances ♦ Enzymes and Coenzymes ♦ Amino Acids, Peptides, and Proteins ♦ Chemicals and Drugs ♦ Diagnosis ♦ Investigative Techniques ♦ Analytical, Diagnostic and Therapeutic Techniques and Equipment ♦ Chemical Phenomena ♦ Genetic Phenomena ♦ Biological Sciences ♦ Natural Science Disciplines ♦ Physical Sciences
Subject Keyword Discipline Botany ♦ Glycogen ♦ Biosynthesis ♦ Plant Proteins ♦ Metabolism ♦ Starch ♦ Urticaceae ♦ 1,4-alpha-glucan Branching Enzyme ♦ Genetics ♦ Carbohydrate Metabolism ♦ Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel ♦ Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic ♦ Gene Expression Regulation, Plant ♦ Glycogen Synthase ♦ Microscopy, Electron, Transmission ♦ Models, Genetic ♦ Plant Leaves ♦ Ultrastructure ♦ Proteome ♦ Proteomics ♦ Sequence Analysis, Rna ♦ Solubility ♦ Starch Synthase ♦ Tandem Mass Spectrometry ♦ Transcriptome ♦ Journal Article ♦ Research Support, Non-u.s. Gov't
Abstract The branched glucans glycogen and starch are the most widespread storage carbohydrates in living organisms. The production of semicrystalline starch granules in plants is more complex than that of small, soluble glycogen particles in microbes and animals. However, the factors determining whether glycogen or starch is formed are not fully understood. The tropical tree Cecropia peltata is a rare example of an organism able to make either polymer type. Electron micrographs and quantitative measurements show that glycogen accumulates to very high levels in specialized myrmecophytic structures (Müllerian bodies), whereas starch accumulates in leaves. Compared with polymers comprising leaf starch, glycogen is more highly branched and has shorter branches--factors that prevent crystallization and explain its solubility. RNA sequencing and quantitative shotgun proteomics reveal that isoforms of all three classes of glucan biosynthetic enzyme (starch/glycogen synthases, branching enzymes, and debranching enzymes) are differentially expressed in Müllerian bodies and leaves, providing a system-wide view of the quantitative programming of storage carbohydrate metabolism. This work will prompt targeted analysis in model organisms and cross-species comparisons. Finally, as starch is the major carbohydrate used for food and industrial applications worldwide, these data provide a basis for manipulating starch biosynthesis in crops to synthesize tailor-made polyglucans.
Description Country affiliation: Switzerland
Author Affiliation: Bischof S ( Department of Biology, ETH Zurich, 8092 Zurich, Switzerland.)
ISSN 10404651
Educational Role Student ♦ Teacher
Age Range above 22 year
Educational Use Reading ♦ Research ♦ Self Learning
Interactivity Type Expositive
Education Level UG and PG
Learning Resource Type Article
Publisher Date 2013-04-01
Publisher Place United States
e-ISSN 1531298X
Volume Number 25
Issue Number 4

Source: WHO-Global Index Medicus