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Author McCrory, Cathal ♦ Layte, Richard
Source World Health Organization (WHO)-Global Index Medicus
Content type Text
Publisher Elsevier
File Format HTM / HTML
Language English
Difficulty Level Medium
Subject Domain (in DDC) Philosophy & psychology ♦ Psychology ♦ Social sciences ♦ Sociology & anthropology ♦ Natural sciences & mathematics ♦ Life sciences; biology ♦ Natural history of organisms ♦ Technology ♦ Medicine & health ♦ Incidence & prevention of disease ♦ Diseases ♦ Manufacture for specific uses ♦ Precision instruments & other devices
Subject Domain (in MeSH) Eukaryota ♦ Organisms ♦ Investigative Techniques ♦ Analytical, Diagnostic and Therapeutic Techniques and Equipment ♦ Behavior and Behavior Mechanisms ♦ Psychological Phenomena and Processes ♦ Psychiatry and Psychology ♦ Education ♦ Anthropology, Education, Sociology and Social Phenomena ♦ Persons ♦ Persons ♦ Geographic Locations ♦ Geographic Locations
Subject Keyword Discipline Medicine ♦ Breast Feeding ♦ Educational Measurement ♦ Adult ♦ Child ♦ Cognition ♦ Cohort Studies ♦ Female ♦ Humans ♦ Ireland ♦ Male ♦ Odds Ratio ♦ Young Adult ♦ Journal Article ♦ Research Support, Non-u.s. Gov't
Abstract This retrospective cross-sectional paper examines the relationship between early breastfeeding exposure and children's academic test scores at nine years of age independent of a wide range of possible confounders. The final sample comprised 8226 nine-year-old school children participating in the first wave of the Growing Up in Ireland study. The children were selected through the Irish national school system using a 2-stage sampling method and were representative of the nine-year population. Information relating to breastfeeding initiation and exposure duration was obtained retrospectively at nine years of age via parental recall and children's academic performance was assessed using standardised reading and mathematics tests. Hierarchical linear regression analysis with robust standard errors to control for clustering at the school level was used to quantify the effect of breastfeeding on children's test scores. Propensity score matching was used to compare treatment effects across groups defined by their propensity to breastfeed. In unadjusted analysis, children who were breastfed scored 8.67 percentage points higher on reading and 7.42 percentage points higher on mathematics compared to those who were never breastfed. While the breastfeeding advantage attenuated appreciably when adjusted for a range of child, maternal, socio-economic and socio-environmental characteristics, children who were breastfed continued to enjoy a significant test score advantage of 3.24 (p<0.001) and 2.23 (p<0.001) percentage points on reading and mathematics respectively compared to those who were never breastfed. Any amount of breastfeeding was associated with significantly higher test scores than no exposure, but evidence of a dose-response relationship was weak. The results of the propensity score matching analysis indicated that the test score advantage of breastfed children is robust and that the magnitude of the effect varies across groups defined by their propensity to breastfeed, being largest amongst the most socially disadvantaged and falling to near zero among the most advantaged group.
Spatial Coverage Ireland
Description Country affiliation: Ireland
Author Affiliation: McCrory C ( The Economic and Social Research Institute, National Longitudinal Study of Children in Ireland, Whitaker Square, Sir John Rogerson's Quay, Dublin 2, Ireland. cathal.mccrory@esri.ie)
ISSN 02779536
Educational Role Student ♦ Teacher
Age Range above 22 year
Educational Use Reading ♦ Research ♦ Self Learning
Interactivity Type Expositive
Education Level UG and PG
Learning Resource Type Article
Publisher Date 2011-05-01
Publisher Place Great Britain (UK)
e-ISSN 18735347
Journal Social Science & Medicine
Volume Number 72
Issue Number 9


Source: WHO-Global Index Medicus