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Author Llop, Sabrina ♦ Ballester, Ferran ♦ Estarlich, Marisa ♦ Iñiguez, Carmen ♦ Ramón, Rosa ♦ Gonzalez, Ma Carmen ♦ Murcia, Mario ♦ Esplugues, Ana ♦ Rebagliato, Marisa
Source World Health Organization (WHO)-Global Index Medicus
Content type Text
Publisher Elsevier
File Format HTM / HTML
Language English
Difficulty Level Medium
Subject Domain (in DDC) Social sciences ♦ Sociology & anthropology ♦ Social problems & services; associations ♦ Social welfare problems & services ♦ Natural sciences & mathematics ♦ Chemistry & allied sciences ♦ Life sciences; biology ♦ Physiology & related subjects ♦ Biochemistry ♦ Natural history of organisms ♦ Technology ♦ Medicine & health ♦ Human physiology ♦ Personal health & safety ♦ Pharmacology and therapeutics ♦ Diseases ♦ Manufacture for specific uses ♦ Precision instruments & other devices
Subject Domain (in MeSH) Eukaryota ♦ Organisms ♦ Inorganic Chemicals ♦ Chemical Actions and Uses ♦ Chemicals and Drugs ♦ Investigative Techniques ♦ Analytical, Diagnostic and Therapeutic Techniques and Equipment ♦ Physiological Phenomena ♦ Reproductive and Urinary Physiological Phenomena ♦ Biological Sciences ♦ Social Sciences ♦ Anthropology, Education, Sociology and Social Phenomena ♦ Persons ♦ Persons ♦ Environment and Public Health ♦ Health Care ♦ Geographic Locations ♦ Geographic Locations
Subject Keyword Discipline Medicine ♦ Environmental Exposure ♦ Inhalation Exposure ♦ Analysis ♦ Nitrogen Dioxide ♦ Administration & Dosage ♦ Social Environment ♦ Adult ♦ Air Pollutants ♦ Cohort Studies ♦ Environmental Monitoring ♦ Methods ♦ Female ♦ Fetal Development ♦ Drug Effects ♦ Humans ♦ Linear Models ♦ Maternal Exposure ♦ Pregnancy ♦ Spain ♦ Questionnaires ♦ Young Adult ♦ Journal Article ♦ Multicenter Study ♦ Research Support, Non-u.s. Gov't
Abstract Numerous studies have focused on the effects of exposure to air pollution on health; however, certain subsets of the population tend to be more exposed to such pollutants depending on their social or demographic characteristics. In addition, exposure to toxicants during pregnancy may play a deleterious role in fetal development as fetuses are especially vulnerable to external insults. The present study was carried out within the framework of the INMA (Infancia y Medio Ambiente or Childhood and the Environment) multicenter cohort study with the objective of identifying the social, demographic, and life-style factors associated with nitrogen dioxide (NO(2)) exposure in the subjects in the cohort. The study comprised 785 pregnant women who formed part of the INMA cohort in Valencia, Spain. Outdoor levels of NO(2) were measured at 93 sampling sites spread over the study area during four different sampling periods lasting 7 days each. Multiple regression models were used for mapping outdoor NO(2) throughout the area. Individual exposure was assigned as: 1) the estimated outdoor NO(2) levels at home, and 2) the average of estimated outdoor NO(2) levels at home and work, weighted according to the time spent in each environment. The subjects' socio-demographic and life-style information was obtained through a questionnaire. In the multiple linear analyses, the outdoor NO(2) levels assigned to each home were taken to be the dependent variable. Other variables included in the model were: age, country of origin, smoking during pregnancy, parity, season of the year, and social class. These same variables remained in the model when the dependent variable was changed to the NO(2) levels adjusted for the subjects' time-activity patterns. We found that younger women, those coming from Latin American countries, and those belonging to the lower social strata were exposed to higher NO(2) levels, both as measured outside their homes as well as when time-activity patterns were taken into account. These subgroups also have a higher probability of being exposed to NO(2) levels over 40 µg/m(3), which is the annual limit for maximum safe exposure, as established by European Directive 2008/50/EC.
Spatial Coverage Spain
Description Country affiliation: Spain
Author Affiliation: Llop S ( Unit of Environment and Health, Centre of Public Health Research (CSISP), Valencia, Spain.
ISSN 02779536
Educational Role Student ♦ Teacher
Age Range above 22 year
Educational Use Reading ♦ Research ♦ Self Learning
Interactivity Type Expositive
Education Level UG and PG
Learning Resource Type Article
Publisher Date 2011-03-01
Publisher Place Great Britain (UK)
e-ISSN 18735347
Journal Social Science & Medicine
Volume Number 72
Issue Number 6

Source: WHO-Global Index Medicus