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Author Keyes, K. M. ♦ Barnes, David M. ♦ Bates, L. M.
Source World Health Organization (WHO)-Global Index Medicus
Content type Text
Publisher Elsevier
File Format HTM / HTML
Language English
Difficulty Level Medium
Subject Domain (in DDC) Philosophy & psychology ♦ Psychology ♦ Natural sciences & mathematics ♦ Life sciences; biology ♦ Natural history of organisms ♦ Technology ♦ Medicine & health ♦ Incidence & prevention of disease ♦ Diseases ♦ Manufacture for specific uses ♦ Precision instruments & other devices
Subject Domain (in MeSH) Eukaryota ♦ Organisms ♦ Nutritional and Metabolic Diseases ♦ Diseases ♦ Diagnosis ♦ Investigative Techniques ♦ Analytical, Diagnostic and Therapeutic Techniques and Equipment ♦ Behavior and Behavior Mechanisms ♦ Psychiatry and Psychology ♦ Natural Science Disciplines ♦ Physical Sciences ♦ Persons ♦ Persons ♦ Geographic Locations ♦ Geographic Locations
Subject Keyword Discipline Medicine ♦ Adaptation, Psychological ♦ African Americans ♦ Psychology ♦ Depression ♦ Ethnology ♦ European Continental Ancestry Group ♦ Stress, Psychological ♦ Statistics & Numerical Data ♦ Alcohol Drinking ♦ Body Mass Index ♦ Empirical Research ♦ Female ♦ Humans ♦ Male ♦ Obesity ♦ Prevalence ♦ Prospective Studies ♦ Risk Factors ♦ Smoking ♦ United States ♦ Epidemiology ♦ Journal Article ♦ Research Support, N.i.h., Extramural
Abstract The scarcity of empirically supported explanations for the Black/White prevalence difference in depression in the U.S. is a conspicuous gap in the literature. Recent evidence suggests that the paradoxical observation of decreased risk of depression but elevated rates of physical illness among Blacks in the U.S. compared with Whites may be accounted for by the use of coping behaviors (e.g., alcohol and nicotine consumption, overeating) among Blacks exposed to high stress levels. Such coping behaviors may mitigate deleterious effects of stressful exposures on mental health while increasing the risk of physical ailments. The racial patterning in mental and physical health outcomes could therefore be explained by this mechanism if a) these behaviors were more prevalent among Blacks than Whites and/or b) the effect of these behavioral responses to stress was differential by race. The present study challenges this hypothesis using longitudinal, nationally-representative data with comprehensive DSM-IV diagnoses. Data are drawn from 34,653 individuals sampled in Waves 1 (2001-2002) and 2 (2004-2005) as part of the US National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. Results showed that a) Blacks were less likely to engage in alcohol or nicotine consumption at low, moderate, and high levels of stress compared to Whites, and b) there was a significant three-way interaction between race, stress, and coping behavior for BMI only (F = 2.11, df = 12, p = 0.03), but, contrary to the hypothesis, elevated BMI was protective against depression in Blacks at low, not high, levels of stress. Further, engagement in unhealthy behaviors, especially at pathological levels, did not protect against depression in Blacks or in Whites. In sum, the impact of stress and coping processes on depression does not appear to operate differently in Blacks versus Whites. Further research testing innovative hypotheses that would explain the difference in Black/White depression prevalence is warranted.
Spatial Coverage United States
Description Country affiliation: United States
Author Affiliation: Keyes KM ( Columbia University, Department of Epidemiology, 722 West 168th Street, Suite #720E, NY 10032, USA. kmk2104@columbia.edu)
ISSN 02779536
Educational Role Student ♦ Teacher
Age Range above 22 year
Educational Use Reading ♦ Research ♦ Self Learning
Interactivity Type Expositive
Education Level UG and PG
Learning Resource Type Article
Publisher Date 2011-03-01
Publisher Place Great Britain (UK)
e-ISSN 18735347
Journal Social Science & Medicine
Volume Number 72
Issue Number 5


Source: WHO-Global Index Medicus