|Author||Sperlich, Billy ♦ Zinner, Christoph ♦ Pfister, Roman ♦ Holmberg, Hans Christer ♦ Michels, Guido|
|Publisher||Springer Berlin Heidelberg|
|Subject Domain (in DDC)||Technology ♦ Medicine & health|
|Subject Keyword||Breath-hold ♦ Cycling ♦ Hypoxia ♦ Repeated apneas ♦ Spleen contraction ♦ Human Physiology ♦ Occupational Medicine/Industrial Medicine ♦ Sports Medicine|
|Abstract||Splenic contraction induced by repeated apneas has been shown to increase oxygen availability. Our aim was to determine whether repeated maximal voluntary apnea enhances the performance of cyclists in a subsequent 4-km time trial.Seven male cyclists [age: 27.1 ± 2.1 years; height: 182 ± 8 cm; body mass: 74.8 ± 9.2 kg; peak oxygen uptake: 56.9 ± 6.6 mL min−1 kg−1 (mean ± SD)] performed a 4-km time trial on an ergometer with and without four prior maximal bouts of apnea interspersed with 2 min of recovery.The average power output during the time trial was similar with (293 ± 48 W) and without (305 ± 42 W) prior apnea (P = 0.11, d = 0.27). The spleen was reduced in size after the fourth bout of apnea (−12.4 ± 9.0 %), as well as one (−36.6 ± 10.3 %) and 10 min (−19.5 ± 17.9 %) after the time trial, while with normal breathing the spleen was smaller one (−35.0 ± 11.3 %) and 10 min (−23.4 ± 19.7 %) after the time trial. Heart rate; oxygen uptake and carbon dioxide production; tissue oxygen saturation; and the lactate concentration, pH, oxygen saturation, level of hemoglobin and hematocrit of the blood were similar under both conditions.Our present findings reveal that four apneas by cyclists prior to a 4-km time trial led to splenic contraction, but no change in mean power output, the level of hemoglobin, hematocrit, oxygen saturation of the m. vastus lateralis or oxygen uptake.|
|Age Range||18 to 22 years ♦ above 22 year|
|Education Level||UG and PG|
|Learning Resource Type||Article|
|Journal||European Journal of Applied Physiology|
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