|Author||Dampier, Will ♦ Antell, Gregory C. ♦ Aiamkitsumrit, Benjamas ♦ Nonnemacher, Michael R. ♦ Jacobson, Jeffrey M. ♦ Pirrone, Vanessa ♦ Zhong, Wen ♦ Kercher, Katherine ♦ Passic, Shendra ♦ Williams, Jean W. ♦ James, Tony ♦ Devlin, Kathryn N. ♦ Giovannetti, Tania ♦ Libon, David J. ♦ Szep, Zsofia ♦ Ehrlich, Garth D. ♦ Wigdahl, Brian ♦ Krebs, Fred C.|
|Publisher||Springer International Publishing|
|Subject Domain (in DDC)||Technology ♦ Medicine & health|
|Subject Keyword||HIV ♦ Vpr ♦ HAND ♦ Neuropathogenesis ♦ GDS ♦ Quasispecies ♦ Sequence ♦ Neurosciences ♦ Virology ♦ Infectious Diseases ♦ Immunology ♦ Neurology|
|Abstract||Even in the era of combination antiretroviral therapies used to combat human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection, up to 50 % of well-suppressed HIV-1-infected patients are still diagnosed with mild neurological deficits referred to as HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND). The multifactorial nature of HAND likely involves the HIV-1 accessory protein viral protein R (Vpr) as an agent of neuropathogenesis. To investigate the effect of naturally occurring variations in Vpr on HAND in well-suppressed HIV-1-infected patients, bioinformatic analyses were used to correlate peripheral blood-derived Vpr sequences with patient neurocognitive performance, as measured by comprehensive neuropsychological assessment and the resulting Global Deficit Score (GDS). Our studies revealed unique associations between GDS and the presence of specific amino acid changes in peripheral blood-derived Vpr sequences [neuropsychological impairment Vpr (niVpr) variants]. Amino acids N41 and A55 in the Vpr sequence were associated with more pronounced neurocognitive deficits (higher GDS). In contrast, amino acids I37 and S41 were connected to measurably lower GDS. All niVpr variants were also detected in DNA isolated from HIV-1-infected brain tissues. The implication of these results is that niVpr variants alter the genesis and/or progression of HAND through differences in Vpr-mediated effects in the peripheral blood and/or the brain.|
|Age Range||18 to 22 years ♦ above 22 year|
|Education Level||UG and PG|
|Learning Resource Type||Article|
|Publisher Place||Cham, Switzerland|
|Journal||Journal of NeuroVirology|
National Digital Library of India (NDLI) is a virtual repository of learning resources which is not just a repository with search/browse facilities but provides a host of services for the learner community. It is sponsored and mentored by Ministry of Education, Government of India, through its National Mission on Education through Information and Communication Technology (NMEICT). Filtered and federated searching is employed to facilitate focused searching so that learners can find the right resource with least effort and in minimum time. NDLI provides user group-specific services such as Examination Preparatory for School and College students and job aspirants. Services for Researchers and general learners are also provided. NDLI is designed to hold content of any language and provides interface support for 10 most widely used Indian languages. It is built to provide support for all academic levels including researchers and life-long learners, all disciplines, all popular forms of access devices and differently-abled learners. It is designed to enable people to learn and prepare from best practices from all over the world and to facilitate researchers to perform inter-linked exploration from multiple sources. It is developed, operated and maintained from Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur.
NDLI is a conglomeration of freely available or institutionally contributed or donated or publisher managed contents. Almost all these contents are hosted and accessed from respective sources. The responsibility for authenticity, relevance, completeness, accuracy, reliability and suitability of these contents rests with the respective organization and NDLI has no responsibility or liability for these. Every effort is made to keep the NDLI portal up and running smoothly unless there are some unavoidable technical issues.
Ministry of Education, through its National Mission on Education through Information and Communication Technology (NMEICT), has sponsored and funded the National Digital Library of India (NDLI) project.
For any issue or feedback, please write to firstname.lastname@example.org