|Author||Mitrakas, Lampros ♦ Gravas, Stavros ♦ Karasavvidou, Foteini ♦ Dimakopoulos, Georgios ♦ Moutzouris, Georgios ♦ Tzortzis, Vasileios ♦ Koukoulis, Georgios ♦ Papandreou, Christos ♦ Melekos, Michael|
|Subject Domain (in DDC)||Technology ♦ Medicine & health|
|Subject Keyword||Endothelin-1 ♦ Overexpression ♦ Biomarker ♦ Muscle-invasive bladder cancer ♦ Prognosis ♦ Cancer Research|
|Abstract||Endothelin-1 (ET-1) is a multifunctional peptide exerting its effects via receptors A and B. ET-1 and its receptors, endothelin axis (ET axis), play a promoting role in cancer biology. Alterations of proteins of ET axis have been detected in non-metastatic muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMMIBC). The objective of this study is to investigate the potential role of ET-1 tumor expression as a biomarker of prognosis, compared to other prognostic parameters (epidemiologic and pathologic), in NMMIBC. We prospectively included 40 consecutive, primary, high-grade NMMIBC patients. Tumor specimens after initial transurethral resection were stained immunohistochemically for ET-1. The ET-1 evaluation of expression was based on staining intensity (SI) of ET-1. SI was classified according to an arbitrary four-tiered scale (negative = 0, mild = 1, moderate = 2, strong = 3). Epidemiologic and pathologic parameters were analyzed, using univariate and multivariate statistics, for disease progression, progression-free survival (PFS), and overall survival (OS). ET-1 overexpression (SI = 3) was the unique parameter which associated significantly, both in univariate (log-rank test, p = 0.033) and multivariate (Cox regression analysis, p = 0.045, HR = 4.849, 95 % CI: 1.039–22.624) analysis, with an increased hazard ratio of progression. ET-1 overexpression (SI = 3) was also the unique parameter which associated, marginally significantly in univariate analysis (log-rank test, p = 0.056) and highly significantly in multivariate analysis (Cox regression analysis, p = 0.005, HR = 7.001, 95 % CI: 1.782–27.501), with an increased hazard ratio of death. Overexpression of ET-1 may be a potential biomarker of unfavorable prognosis in NMMIBC patients.|
|Age Range||18 to 22 years ♦ above 22 year|
|Education Level||UG and PG|
|Learning Resource Type||Article|
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