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Author Henning, Thomas ♦ Meeus, Gwendolyn
Source arXiv.org
Content type Text
File Format PDF
Date of Submission 2009-11-05
Language English
Subject Domain (in DDC) Computer science, information & general works ♦ Natural sciences & mathematics ♦ Astronomy & allied sciences ♦ Physics
Subject Keyword Astrophysics - Solar and Stellar Astrophysics ♦ Astrophysics - Earth and Planetary Astrophysics ♦ physics:astro-ph
Abstract We discuss the different dust components of a protoplanetary disk with a special emphasis on grain composition, size and structure. The paper will highlight the role dust grains play in protoplanetary disks, as well as observational results supporting this knowledge. First, the path dust travels from the interstellar medium into the CS disk is described. Then dust condensation sequences from the gas are introduced, to determine the most likely species that occur in a disk. The characteristics of silicates are handled in detail: composition, lattice structure, magnesium to iron ratio and spectral features. The other main dust-forming component of the interstellar medium, carbon, is presented in its many forms, from molecules to more complex grains. Observational evidence for PAHs is given for both young stars and solar system material. We show how light scattering theory and laboratory data can be used to provide the optical properties of dust grains. From the observer's point of view, we discuss how infrared spectra can be used to derive dust properties, and present the main spectral analysis methods currently used and their limitations. Observational results, determining the dust properties in protoplanetary disks, are given: first for the bright intermediate-mass Herbig Ae/Be stars, and then for the lower-mass Tauri stars and brown dwarfs. Here we present results from the space observatories ISO and Spitzer, as well as from the mid-infrared interferometer VLTI, and summarise the main findings. We discuss observational evidence for grain growth in both Herbig Ae/Be and T Tauri stars, and its relation with spectral type and dust settling. We conclude with an outlook on future space missions that will open new windows, towards longer wavelengths and even fainter objects.
Educational Use Research
Learning Resource Type Article
Page Count 33


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