|Author||Alcamo, J. ♦ Hordijk, L. ♦ Kaemaeri, J. ♦ Kauppi, P. ♦ Posch, M. ♦ Runca, E.|
|Source||United States Department of Energy Office of Scientific and Technical Information|
|Subject Keyword||ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES ♦ ENERGY PLANNING, POLICY AND ECONOMY ♦ ACID RAIN ♦ ATMOSPHERIC CHEMISTRY ♦ ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS ♦ POLLUTION SOURCES ♦ ACIDIFICATION ♦ SYSTEMS ANALYSIS ♦ EUROPE ♦ FORESTS ♦ LAKES ♦ AQUATIC ECOSYSTEMS ♦ DECISION MAKING ♦ SOIL CHEMISTRY ♦ SULFUR ♦ TERRESTRIAL ECOSYSTEMS ♦ ATMOSPHERIC PRECIPITATIONS ♦ CHEMISTRY ♦ ECOSYSTEMS ♦ ELEMENTS ♦ NONMETALS ♦ RAIN ♦ SURFACE WATERS 500200* -- Environment, Atmospheric-- Chemicals Monitoring & Transport-- (-1989) ♦ Environment, TerrestrialChemicals Monitoring & Transport(-1989) ♦ Environment, AquaticChemicals Monitoring & Transport(-1989) ♦ Energy Planning & PolicyEnvironment, Health, & Safety|
|Abstract||This paper presents the interim status of the RAINS model developed at the International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis. The principal purpose of the model is to provide a tool to assist decision-makers in their evaluation of strategies to control acidification of Europe's environment. Model design emphasizes user comprehension and ease of use. The overall framework of RAINS consists of three linked compartments: Pollutant Generation, Atmospheric Processes and Environmental Impact. Each of these compartments can be filled by different substitutable submodels. The four submodels currently available are Sulfur Emissions, EMEP Sulfur Transport, Forest Soil Acidity, and Lake Acidity. Submodels which deal with NO/sub x/ emissions and deposition and other environmental impacts will be added to the model. To operate the model, a user must select (1) an energy pathway, (2) a pollution control strategy and (3) an environmental impact indicator. This formation is input to RAINS and yields a scenario which is a consistent set of energy pathway, sulfur emissions, forest soil acidity, and lake acidity. In an iterative fashion, a model user can quickly evaluate the consequences of many different alternatives to control acidification in Europe. 8 references.|
|Learning Resource Type||Article|
|Publisher Place||United States|
|Journal||J. Environ. Manage.|
|Organization||International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, Laxenburg, Austria|
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