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Researcher Sailaja, B.
Source KrishiKosh-Indian National Agricultural Research System
Content type Text
Educational Degree Master of Science (M.Sc.)
File Format PDF
Language English
Subject Domain (in DDC) Technology ♦ Agriculture & related technologies ♦ Animal husbandry
Subject Keyword Dogs ; Distal Tibial Shaft Fractures; Hybrid External Skeletal Fixators ♦ Veterinary Surgery and Radiology ♦ Management of Distal Tibial Shaft Fractures With Hybrid External Skeletal Fixators In Dogs
Abstract ABSTRACT : Dogs presented to the College Hospital with unstable distal tibial shaft fractures were diagnosed by clinical signs, orthopedic examination and survey radiography. The breed, age and sex wise incidence of these fractures was studied. After diagnosis and classification of distal tibial shaft fractures, selected cases of 6 dogs were stabilized with hybrid external skeletal fixator. Hybrid External skeletal fixator was applied with various sizes of indigenously designed stainless steel end threaded half pins, k-wires, connecting rods, circular ring, AO clamps, posts, slotted bolts and nuts according to fracture patient assessment. The Frame stabilization on proximal and distal fragment and outcome of the healing and functional limb outcome were studied with clinical and radiographic evaluation. In all 6 cases, no technical difficulties were observed while application of end threaded positive profile half pins and k- wires of fixator. Based on radiographic confirmation, the stability of the fixator was assessed and it was good in all cases except in case No.5 where the half pins and k- wires were loosened and the destabilization of frame was observed after 14 days. In this case, the fracture was again stabilized by tightening the clamps and tensioning the k-wires. Pin tract infections and wound formation at pin-skin interface were observed commonly but subsided with antibiotic treatment. Lameness grading based on weight bearing of all 6 animals was studied. All animals with unstable fractures showed grade V lameness before surgical treatment. Case No.5 exhibited grade V lameness even after 14 days because of half pin loosening in post operative period. After restabilization of application of pins and tightening of clamps the animal showed weight bearing with grade II lameness even though slight pin tract infection and wound at skin pin interface were seen. All cases showed grade I lameness in an average of 3-9 weeks. Functional limb outcome was excellent in two cases, good in three cases and in one case, normal weight bearing with slight valgus was observed. Pain was evaluated and scored which showed significantly higher mean values of in all 6 animals between first day to 14th post operative days and completely lesser values on 60th day indicated that hybrid fixator has provided good stability on distal tibial fractures. The result of radiographic evaluation for fixator stability, fragment alignment and callus formation in immediate post operative stage, after 3weeks, 5 wks, 7wks, and 9 wks in all 6 animals was studied. Overall average healing time was noticed during 5-9 weeks. Excellent healing was noticed radio graphically with absence of fracture lines with endosteal and bridging callus. Delayed healing with periosteal callus formation was seen in case No. 5. The comminuted fractures showed radio graphically complete cortical union with bridging and periosteal callus within 7-9 weeks. In other cases, the healing was by endosteal and bridging callus within 5-7 weeks where the good stability of half pins and K-wires in each fragment was observed. Serum alkaline phosphatase and CRP values at all the stages (differed significantly (P < 0.01) in different postoperative days. Higher values observed on 7th and 14th day and thereafter decreased to normal levels. No major intra operative complications were observed. Post operatively, in case No.5, pin loosening with instability of fixator was observed. Pin bone interface wound formation, pin tract infection and edema observed in case No. 3 and 5 which were subsided by 9 weeks. Complete fixator removal was done on an average 5-9 weeks after radiographic appearance of cortical union. K-wires and half pins along with frames were removed in all the cases after complete healing showed grade I lameness after removal. Based on present study, it was concluded that Hybrid external skeletal fixator with various sizes of indigenously designed connecting frames of stainless steel end threaded half pins, k-wires, connecting rods, circular ring, AO clamps, posts, slotted bolts and nuts according to fracture patient assessment was good for stabilization of unstable distal tibial fractures for early limb ambulance and excellent healing. The minor complications of pin loosening and pin tract infection which were noticed could be easily overcome by improving the technique of application and postoperative care.
Educational Use Research
Education Level UG and PG
Learning Resource Type Thesis
Publisher Place Tirupati
Size (in Bytes) 1.71 MB
Page Count 78