Access Restriction

Researcher Kumari, Singh Aruna
Advisor Koley, K. M.
Source KrishiKosh-Indian National Agricultural Research System
Content type Text
Educational Degree Master of Science (M.Sc.)
Publisher Chhattisgarh Kamdhenu Vishwavidyalaya
File Format PDF
Language English
Subject Domain (in DDC) Technology ♦ Agriculture & related technologies ♦ Animal husbandry
Subject Keyword Veterinary Pharmacology ♦ Pharmacological Studies On Alstonia Scholaris (chhatiyan) With Special Reference To Antidiarrhoeal Activity
Abstract The present investigation was undertaken to screen some pharmacological effects of methanolic Alstonia scholaris (Chhatiyan) stem bark extract (ASE) in laboratory animals. A. scholaris stem bark was procured from veterinary college campus, botanically identified, shade dried and the powdered bark was subjected to continuous extraction with hot methanol using soxhlet’s apparatus. Soxhlet’s extraction of dried bark powder yielded about 13.1% of hot methanolic extract. The ASE thus obtained, was pharmacologically screened for antiinflammatory, analgesic, antipyretic, ulcerogenic, antibacterial and antidiarrhoeal activities and also for its effect on isolated smooth muscle of guinea-pig ileum. The chemical constituents of ASE were identified by standard qualitative chemical tests. Young weaned male Swiss mice (20-30g), Wistar rats (120-150g) and Guinea-pig (400-500g) of either sex were used as experimental animals in the above experiments. At first a limit test was performed to evaluate the acute oral toxicity of ASE in albino rats with upper limit dose of 2000 mg/kg. The animals did not reveal any acute toxicity signs and symptoms at this dose level. The limit test indicated that oral LD50 of ASE was above 2000 mg/kg and the compound may be considered practically safe. Based on the acute oral toxicity study, 1/5th of the limit dose (400 mg/kg) was considered as the maximum effective oral dose for pharmacological screening. The preliminary phytochemical screening of the plant revealed the presence of tannins, alkaloids, saponins, phystosterols, phenolic compounds, glycoside and flavonoids. The anti-inflammatory activity of ASE was tested using rat paw oedema model induced by phlogistic agent, carrageenan. The anti-inflammatory activity was assessed by measuring the reduction in carrageenan induced rat paw oedema in comparison to saline control. The rats 81 treated with ASE 200 and 400 mg/kg, p.o., showed significant (P< 0.01) and dose-dependent reduction in rat paw oedema (42.55 and 53.19%, respectively) as compared to saline control. However, standard drug, phenylbutazone (100 mg/kg, p.o.) inhibited the rat paw oedema by about 72.34%. The anti-inflammatory activity of ASE as observed in the present study could be because of its antagonistic action of mediators of inflammation viz. histamine, 5-HT, bradykinin and prostaglandins. The technique of Eddy and Leimbach, using hot plate-mouse model was employed for screening of central analgesic action and acetic acid induced writhing test was performed in mice to test the peripheral analgesic activity of ASE. In hot plate test, ASE 400 mg/kg, p.o. did not show significant analgesic effect. However, in acetic acid-induced writhing test in mice, ASE 200 mg/kg, p.o. did not produce significant reduction (0.79%) in writhing counts in mice but at 400 mg/kg, p.o. produced significant (P< 0.01) reduction (36.20%) in writhing counts in mice as compared to untreated control. The standard drug, aspirin (100 mg/kg, p.o.) inhibited the writhing counts by 77.23%. The result indicated that ASE at 400 mg/kg, p.o. showed significant analgesia (peripheral) on stretching episodes induced by acetic acid but at this dose level it did not show significant analgesic effect in hot plate test. Lack of analgesic activity of ASE in hot plate test indicated that ASE failed to act at CNS level. The antipyretic activity of the ASE was evaluated against Brewer’s yeast-induced pyrexia in male albino rats. ASE (400 mg/kg, p.o.) did not reveal any antipyretic effect in rats rendered febrile by Brewer’s yeast. ASE at 400 mg/kg neither affected the normal body temperature in afebrile (normal) rats nor showed any behavioral changes suggestive of having little effect on CNS. The ulcerogenic potential of ASE was tested using rat stomach model. The study revealed that administration of ASE at 400 mg/kg, p.o. daily for consecutive 7 days had no 82 adverse effect on the gastric mucosa of rats whereas aspirin (100 mg/kg, p.o. for consecutive 7 days) produced gastric lesion in about 83 per cent of rats. The antibacterial activity of ASE was studied in vitro by employing disc diffusion technique against pathogenic strains of Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella gallinarum. The filter paper discs impregnated with different concentrations of methanolic solution of ASE (250 mg/ml, 500 mg/ml and 1000 mg/ml) were employed for the study of its antibacterial activity. The disc diffusion study revealed that all the organisms were sensitive to various concentrations of ASE but the sensitivity of all the above bacteria to a particular concentration of ASE was equal. However, ciprofloxacin showed significantly higher antibacterial activity against all the test the organisms as compared to any concentration of ASE studied. Antidiarrhoeal activity of ASE was evaluated by castor oil induced diarrhoea test and gastrointestinal motility test (charcoal meal test). Pretreatment of rats with ASE at 400 mg/kg, p.o. caused a significant (P< 0.01) delay in the onset of diarrhoea, significant (P< 0.01) reduction in frequency of defecation (reduction in number of diarrhoeal faeces and total number of faeces), decrease in weight of diarrhoeal faeces and general diarrhoeal score as compared to control group of rats treated with vehicle. The result showed antidiarrhoeal action of ASE against castor oil induced diarrhoea. The standard drug loperamide @ 3 mg/kg, p.o. also showed significant (P< 0.01) reduction in number of diarrhoeal faeces and diarrhoeal score as compared to control. In gastrointestinal motility test, both ASE and atropine sulphate caused a significant (P< 0.01) reduction in propulsion of the intestinal transit of charcoal meal through the GIT, when compared to control group. The percentage of reduction of peristaltic index with ASE (400 mg/kg, p.o.) and atropine sulphate (5 mg/kg, p.o.) were 16.12 and 32.85% respectively 83 considering the peristaltic index of control group as 100%. The test indicated that both ASE and atropine sulphate caused a significant reduction of gastrointestinal tract motility. Antidiarrhoeal study indicated that the ASE possessed marked antidiarrhoeal activity and the antidiarrhoeal effect of ASE seemed to be associated with the dual effects of antisecretory as well as reduction in gastrointestinal tract motility. In vitro studies on isolated smooth muscle of guinea-pig ileum revealed that ASE itself had neither stimulatory nor inhibitory effect on this tissue but pretreatment of the tissue with 8 mg of ASE/ml of bath fluid volume caused about 77.27% blockade of acetylcholine induced contraction and complete blockade of histamine induced contraction. The result indicated that ASE possessed both anticholinergic as well as histaminergic blocking activities on the smooth muscle of guinea-pig ileum. The promising anti-inflammatory, analgesic (peripheral), antibacterial and antidiarrhoeal activity coupled with absence of ulcerogenic activity indicated that the ASE merits further studies to establish its clinical usefulness in the alleviation of inflammation, pain and diarrhoea in man and animals.
Educational Use Research
Education Level UG and PG
Learning Resource Type Thesis
Publisher Place Durg
Size (in Bytes) 679.54 kB