|Advisor||Naik, M. Raja|
|Source||KrishiKosh-Indian National Agricultural Research System|
|Educational Degree||Master of Science (M.Sc.)|
|Publisher||COLLEGE OF HORTICULTURE ANANTHARAJUPETA - 516 105, Y.S.R DISTRICT|
|Subject Domain (in DDC)||Technology ♦ Agriculture & related technologies ♦ Garden crops (Horticulture)|
|Subject Keyword||Growth ♦ Flowering and Physiological Response of African Marigold ♦ Pgpre (plant Growth Promoting Root Endophyte) ♦ Randomized Block Design (rbd). ♦ Flowering and Physiological Response of African Marigold (tagetus Erecta L.) Cv. Arrow Gold To Nutrients and Piriformospora Indica ♦ Floriculture and Landscaping ♦ The Experiment Was Laid Out In Randomized Block Design (rbd) Keeping Nine Treatments With Rdf Along With Piriformospora Indica. The Treatments Were Replicated Thrice. Observations Were Recorded On Growth ♦ Flowering ♦ Physiology and Biochemical Attributes ♦ Root Parameters ♦ Content of Nutrients and Anatomical Studies To Examine The Symbiotic Association Between The Host An|
|Abstract||The present investigation entitled â€œGrowth, flowering and physiological response of African marigold (Tagetus erecta L.) cv. Arrow Gold to nutrients and Piriformospora indica.â€ was carried out at College of Horticulture, Anantarajupeta during 2016-17. The experiment was laid out in Randomized Block Design replicated thrice with 9 treatments. Observations were recorded on growth, flowering, physiology, biochemical attributes, root parameters, content of nutrients and anatomical study to examine the symbiotic association between the host and PGPRE (Plant Growth Promoting Root Endophyte). The observation on growth parameters revealed that, application of 75 % RDF along with Piriformospora indica inoculated to seeds (T2) recorded maximum plant height (43.62 cm, 49.44 cm and 58.29 cm) at 30 DAP, 60 DAP and at full bloom stage. Highest stem diameter (10.53 mm, 14.25 mm) at 30 DAT and 60 DAT, respectively. Higher number of leaves (105.20) at 60 DAT and maximum plant spread (56.06 cm (E-W) and 59.82 cm (N-S).Whereas, maximum stem diameter (14.56 cm) at full bloom stage, and more number of leaves (89.41) was recorded in the treatment 50 % RDF + Piriformospora indica inoculated to seeds (T3). While higher number of total branches plant-1 (99.43) was recorded in 75 % RDF + Piriformospora indica inoculated to seedling roots at the time of transplanting (T5). Among floral attributes, application of 75 % RDF + Piriformospora indica inoculated to seeds (T2) took minimum number of days for initiation of 1st flower bud (44.72), days for full flowering (59.55), highest flower diameter (9.27 cm), maximum weight of single flower (20.41g), more fresh weight of total flowers plant-1 (394.47 g), highest flower yield plot-1 (13.49 kg), maximum flower yield (29.06 t ha-1). However, the treatment 50 % RDF + Piriformospora indica inoculated to seeds (T3) resulted in minimum days for flower bud break (8.62) and maximum total flower count plant-1 (53.62). Significant variations were observed among various treatments with respect to physiological parameters except for seedling biomass content. Among various inputs, 75 % RDF + Piriformospora indica inoculated to seeds (T2) resulted in highest plant biomass (17.13 g plant-1, 34.27 g plant-1) at 30 DAT, 60 DAT, highest chlorophyll â€˜aâ€™ (0.181 mg g-1 fresh weight), chlorophyll â€˜bâ€™ (0.184 mg g-1 fresh weight) and total chlorophyll content (0.365 mg g-1 fresh weight). While, treatment with 100 % RDF + Piriformospora indica inoculated to seeds (T4) recorded highest leaf area index (44.81). Whereas, maximum crop growth rate (2.78 g m-2 day-1), relative growth rate (0.022 g day-1) and net assimilation rate (0.047 g m-2 day-1) recorded was maximum in the treatment 75 % RDF + Piriformospora indica inoculated to seedling roots at the time of transplanting (T5). However, maximum leaf area (38.91cm2) at 60 DAT was recorded in 50 % RDF + Piriformospora indica inoculated to seedling roots at the time of transplanting (T6), while maximum leaf area of 45.75 cm2 at 60 DAT was obtained in 75 % RDF + Piriformospora indica inoculated before transplanting (T7). With respect to biochemical traits, treatment with 75 % RDF + Piriformospora indica inoculated to seedling roots at the time of transplanting (T5) resulted in more carotenoids (31.32 mg g-1) and total phenols (76.55 mg g-1). The nutrient combination 50 % RDF + Piriformospora indica inoculated to seeds (T3) resulted in highest carbohydrates (6.82 mg g-1). The treatment 100 % RDF + Piriformospora indica inoculated to seeds (T4) recorded maximum flavonoid content (4.67 mg g-1). The result on root parameters revealed that, different treatments had significant variation on root parameters studied. Application of 75 % RDF + Piriformospora indica inoculated to seeds (T2) recorded longer root (19.21 cm), higher root count plant-1(127.33), highest root volume (39.33m3) and highest root colonization of Piriformospora indica in marigold (75.09 %). With respect to nutrient content from entire plant, the treatment 75 % RDF + Piriformospora indica inoculated to seeds (T2) recorded highest phosphorus (0.94 %) and maximum potash content (2.95 %). While, maximum nitrogen content of 2.76 per cent was obtained in 50 % RDF + Piriformospora indica inoculated to seeds (T3). There was positive correlation of flower yield with flower diameter, total number of flowers plant-1, fresh weight of total flowers, plant biomass and root length. Symbiotic association was observed between the host and PGPRE, in the P indica inoculated plants and the hyphal growth of the fungus was detected on the root surface between the outer cell layers of the cortex and within the cortical cells. The fungal hyphae invaded the cortical cells and form tightly interwoven coils called â€˜pelotonsâ€™ characteristic of orchid mycorrhizae. In the cortical cells of the roots, development of intracellular hyphal coils and round bodies could be observed. Finally, it was concluded that, application of 75 % RDF along with inoculation of Piriformospora indica to seeds (T2) appears to be an optimum nutrient combination for enhancing growth, flowering, physiological, biochemical, root parameters, content of the nutrients and yield in African marigold cv. Arrow Gold under the tropical conditions of Rayalaseema region of Andhra Pradesh for the benefit of farming community.|
|Education Level||UG and PG|
|Learning Resource Type||Thesis|
|Publisher Place||Andhra Pradesh|
|Size (in Bytes)||6.04 MB|
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