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Researcher Singh, Apminder Pal
Advisor Sood, N. K.
Source KrishiKosh-Indian National Agricultural Research System
Content type Text
Educational Degree Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.)
Publisher GADVASU
File Format PDF
Language English
Subject Domain (in DDC) Technology ♦ Agriculture & related technologies ♦ Animal husbandry
Subject Keyword Bovine Calf Diarrhea ♦ Clinical Chemistry ♦ Cytology ♦ Elisa ♦ Haematology ♦ Ihc ♦ Immunosuppression ♦ Live and Dead Animals ♦ Multiple Infections ♦ Outbreaks ♦ Pcr ♦ Veterinary Pathology ♦ Studies On Immunopathological and Molecular Diagnostics of Infectious Causes of Diarrhea In Bovine Calves
Abstract The present study was conducted with the objective to investigate the etiological agents of bovine calf diarrhea in both live and dead animals. The study focused on 17 outbreaks of bovine calf diarrhea in periurban Ludhiana, during which samples from 100 diarrheic calves were subjected to haematological, serum chemical and fecal examination by conventional microscopy, special staining and antigen detection by advanced techniques viz ELISA and PCR for Escherichia coli, Clostridium perfringens, Salmonella, rotavirus, coronavirus and Cryptosporidium parvum. The calves were divided into 5 sub-groups i.e. 1-7, 8-14, 15-21, 22-30 and 31-60 day-age groups. Hematology revealed anemia, neutrophilic leukocytosis and clinical chemistry, a significant increase in gamma-glutamyl transferase, blood urea nitrogen and creatine phosphokinase, however, albumin, globulin, calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, aspartate amino transferase and alkaline phosphatase showed no change. Among various etiological agents E coli, C perfringens, salmonella, rotavirus, coronavirus and C parvum were predominant. PCR was more sensitive than ELISA, particularly for C. parvum. The study conducted on 43 dead calves during outbreaks revealed immunohistochemistry to be useful in detecting E coli, C perfringens, salmonella, rotavirus, coronavirus and C parvum and their systemic dissemination. A significant coccidial infection was also detected in live(7/100) and dead(5/43) animals. A comparison of study on live and dead animals elucidated multiple etiologies in 61% and 83.72% cases, respectively. Moreover C. parvum emerged as a crucial pathogen of diarrhea in bovine calves, detected in fecal smears and impression smear cytology of intestines. Evidences of immunosuppression were recorded in both live and dead animals. It was concluded that diarrhea in bovine calves was multifactorial etiology perpetuated by underlying immunosuppression and thus culminating in mortality.
Educational Use Research
Education Level UG and PG
Learning Resource Type Thesis
Publisher Place Ludhiana
Size (in Bytes) 6.40 MB
Page Count 172