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Researcher Badhe, Vijaykumar Totaram
Advisor Singh, Pratap
Source KrishiKosh-Indian National Agricultural Research System
Content type Text
Educational Degree Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.)
Publisher MPUAT
File Format PDF
Language English
Subject Domain (in DDC) Technology ♦ Agriculture & related technologies ♦ Animal husbandry
Subject Keyword Development ♦ Performance ♦ Evaluation ♦ Alphonso ♦ Mango ♦ Grader ♦ Development and Performance Evaluation of Alphonso Mango Grader ♦ Farm ♦ Machinery and Power
Abstract The mango (Mangifera indica L.) is a national fruit of India. Amongst all, Alphonso is the most preferred variety in the country and has a great export potential. Alphonso is mainly produced in Maharashtra, predominantly grown in the Konkan region on an area of 1.65 lakh ha with a production of 2.72 lakh tonnes. The export of mango from India is largely confined to single variety i.e. Alphonso and share of other varieties is negligible. Exporters are facing problems in grading of export quality of mango to fetch better prices. Considering the need of Alphonso mango growers of Maharashtra, the project was envisaged with the objectives to determine various physico-chemical, rheological, engineering and textural properties and based on these properties the work on “Development and performance evaluation of Alphonso mango grader†was under taken at Dr. B.S. Konkan Krishi Vidyapeeth, Dapoli in collaboration with MPUA&T, Udaipur. Based on the various physical, chemical, engineering, rheological, compressive strength, skin colour and textural properties of Alphonso, the maturity standard for harvesting the fruits at raw stage was observed. The standard suggested the exact values with ± variation in each value due to location for consideration in each property. The index values, on the basis of physical properties for raw fruits in export grade (G-II) mango were noted as fruit weight: 260 ± 10 g, volume: 256 ± 10 cc, specific gravity: 1.01 - 1.02, length: 91.05 - 95.97 mm, breadth: 72.11-73.73 mm and thickness: 64.93 – 69.54 mm; for chemical properties the values were, moisture content: 83.60 - 83.80 per cent, T.S.S.: 8.33 - 8.450 Brix, starch: 11.47 - 11.53 per cent, reducing sugar: 1.43 - 1.64 per cent, total sugar: 3.19 - 3.53 per cent, acidity: 3.25 - 3.57 per cent, pH: 2.11 - 2.72, ascorbic acid: 80.00 - 82.80 mg/100g, Tannins: 155.55 - 157.58 mg/100g, ï ¢-carotene: 320 - 362 µg/100g. The engineering properties in the form of equivalent diameter were 75.25 - 80.35 mm, shape: 0.99, firmness: 19.49 - 22.49 N, hardness: 47.85 - 54.14 N, piercing force: 34.56 - 36.12 N and bio-yield point: 112.78 - 125.22 kgf. The colour values were determined as lightness: 45.55 - 47.36, redness and greenness: -4.35 to -6.17, yellowness and blueness: 38.30 - 43.43, yellowness index (YI): 72.16 - 77.33 and whiteness index (WI): -273.40 to -300.26 on the basis of these scales olive green colour was assigned. Similarly, the maturity standards for ripe stage are suggested for the export of Alphonso mango for shorter distances with reduced shelf life. The important values for ripe stage in physical properties are as fruit weight: 232 ± 10 g, volume: 213 ± 10 cc, specific gravity: 1.07 - 1.09, length: 88.74 - 94.62 mm, breadth: 68.73 - 74.20 mm and thickness: 60.23 – 65.60 mm; for chemical properties the values are as moisture content: 80.40 - 84.41 per cent, T.S.S.: 18.18 - 18.330 Brix, reducing sugar: 4.49 - 4.76 per cent, total sugar: 14.88 - 15.03 per cent, acidity: 0.39 - 0.40 per cent, pH: 5.46 - 5.78, ascorbic acid: 63.30 - 65.50 mg/100g, Tannins: 59.81 - 64.17 mg/100g, ï ¢-carotene: 11220-11785 µg/100g. The engineering properties in the form of equivalent diameter were 76.61 - 77.22 mm, shape: 0.92 - 0.94, firmness: 11.45 - 12.02 N, hardness: 6.90 - 6.95 N, piercing force: 30.25 - 31.00 N and bio-yield point: 13.50 - 19.08 kgf. The colour values were determined as lightness: 58.52 - 60.27, redness and greenness: 18.98 - 19.38, yellowness and blueness: 65.75 - 66.43, yellowness index (YI): 87.38 - 89.73 and whiteness index: -306.90 to -322.44 on the basis of these scales golden yellow color were assigned. The performance of computerized Alphonso mango grader was determined for four different speeds of conveyor and four brain settings and its effect on grading of Alphonso mango into different grades were statistically analyzed. The results on overall grading capacity and efficiency indicated that the highest overall grading capacity with a single lane grader was found as 950 kg/hr or 8 tonnes per day with the highest overall grading efficiency of 95.13 per cent for best grader combination of S3 speed (12 m/min) and B4 brain setting for grading of Alphonso mango. The highest impact damage was observed to the tune of 5.35 per cent which was noticed on ripening of fruits and found within permissible limit. The cost of grading by computerized grader was Rs.189.60/t whereas; it was Rs.350.40/t for manual grading. Thus, the computerized grader saved Rs.160.80/t in grading cost when compared with manual grading, not only that but also saves labour cost considering the per day output of machine (16t/day) which was equivalent to the work of 57 man days (skilled) in manual grading. Therefore, the grader is an efficient, economical and labour saving machine.
Educational Use Research
Education Level UG and PG
Learning Resource Type Thesis
Publisher Place Udaipur
Size (in Bytes) 1.86 MB
Page Count 276