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Author Kozdrowicki, Edward W. ♦ Cooper, Dennis W.
Source ACM Digital Library
Content type Text
Publisher Association for Computing Machinery (ACM)
File Format PDF
Language English
Subject Keyword Minimax ♦ Tactical ♦ Tree searching ♦ Auxiliary minimal game ♦ Computer chess tournament ♦ Strategical ♦ Game playing ♦ Minimal chess game ♦ Concept formation ♦ Lasker regions ♦ Tactical control mode ♦ Heuristic programming ♦ Chess algorithms ♦ Alpha beta ♦ Command structure ♦ Fischer set ♦ Tree searching catastrophe ♦ Machine learning ♦ Selective searching ♦ Artificial intelligence
Abstract OKO III is a chess player written entirely in Fortran. On the IBM 360-65, COKO III plays a minimal chess game at the rate of .2 sec cpu time per move, with a level close to lower chess club play. A selective tree searching procedure controlled by tactical chess logistics allows a deployment of multiple minimal game calculations to achieve some optimal move selection. The tree searching algorithms are the heart of COKO's effectiveness, yet they are conceptually simple. In addition, an interesting phenomenon called a tree searching catastrophe has plagued COKO's entire development just as it troubles a human player. Standard exponential growth is curbed to a large extent by the definition and trimming of the Fisher set. A clear distinction between tree pruning and selective tree searching is also made. Representation of the chess environment is described along with a strategical preanalysis procedure that maps the Lasker regions. Specific chess algorithms are described which could be used as a command structure by anyone desiring to do some chess program experimentation. A comparison is made of some mysterious actions of human players and COKO III.
Description Affiliation: Univ. of California at Davis, Davis (Kozdrowicki, Edward W.) || Bell Telephone Labs, Whippany, NJ (Cooper, Dennis W.)
Age Range 18 to 22 years ♦ above 22 year
Educational Use Research
Education Level UG and PG
Learning Resource Type Article
Publisher Date 2005-08-01
Publisher Place New York
Journal Communications of the ACM (CACM)
Volume Number 16
Issue Number 7
Page Count 17
Starting Page 411
Ending Page 427


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Source: ACM Digital Library