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Author Neumann, Peter G.
Source ACM Digital Library
Content type Text
Publisher Association for Computing Machinery (ACM)
File Format PDF
Language English
Abstract Background: Errors and alleged fraud in computer-based elections have been recurring Risks Forum themes. The state of the computing art continues to be primitive. Punch-card systems are seriously flawed and easily tampered with, and still in widespread use. Direct recording equipment is also suspect, with no ballots, no guaranteed audit trails, and no real assurances that votes cast are properly recorded and processed.
Age Range 18 to 22 years ♦ above 22 year
Educational Use Research
Education Level UG and PG
Learning Resource Type Article
Publisher Date 2005-08-01
Publisher Place New York
Journal Communications of the ACM (CACM)
Volume Number 33
Issue Number 11


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Source: ACM Digital Library