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Author Azizi, Omid ♦ Horowitz, Mark ♦ Qadeer, Wajahat ♦ Kozyrakis, Christos ♦ Hameed, Rehan ♦ Wachs, Megan ♦ Solomatnikov, Alex ♦ Lee, Benjamin C. ♦ Richardson, Stephen
Source ACM Digital Library
Content type Text
Publisher Association for Computing Machinery (ACM)
File Format PDF
Language English
Abstract Scaling the performance of a power limited processor requires decreasing the energy expended per instruction executed, since energy/op * op/second is power. To better understand what improvement in processor efficiency is possible, and what must be done to capture it, we quantify the sources of the performance and energy overheads of a 720p HD H.264 encoder running on a general-purpose four-processor CMP system. The initial overheads are large: the CMP was 500 x less energy efficient than an Application Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC) doing the same job. We explore methods to eliminate these overheads by transforming the CPU into a specialized system for H.264 encoding. Broadly applicable optimizations like single instruction, multiple data (SIMD) units improve CMP performance by 14 x and energy by 10x, which is still 50x worse than an ASIC. The problem is that the basic operation costs in H.264 are so small that even with a SIMD unit doing over 10 ops per cycle, 90% of the energy is still overhead. Achieving ASIC-like performance and effciency requires algorithm-specifc optimizations. For each subalgorithm of H.264, we create a large, specialized functional/storage unit capable of executing hundreds of operations per instruction. This improves energy effciency by 160x (instead of 10x), and the final customized CMP reaches the same performance and within 3x of an ASIC solution's energy in comparable area.
Description Affiliation: Duke University, Durham, NC (Lee, Benjamin C.) || Stanford University, Stanford, CA (Hameed, Rehan; Qadeer, Wajahat; Wachs, Megan; Richardson, Stephen; Kozyrakis, Christos; Horowitz, Mark) || Hicamp Systems, Menlo Park, CA (Azizi, Omid; Solomatnikov, Alex)
Age Range 18 to 22 years ♦ above 22 year
Educational Use Research
Education Level UG and PG
Learning Resource Type Article
Publisher Date 2005-08-01
Publisher Place New York
Journal Communications of the ACM (CACM)
Volume Number 54
Issue Number 10
Page Count 9
Starting Page 85
Ending Page 93


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Source: ACM Digital Library