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Author Chaiwatpongsakorn, Chaichana ♦ Wang, Demin ♦ Lu, Mingming ♦ Toruksa, Wassana ♦ Keener, Tim C. ♦ Agrawal, Dharma P.
Source ACM Digital Library
Content type Text
Publisher Association for Computing Machinery (ACM)
File Format PDF
Language English
Abstract Introduction Carbon Monoxide (CO) is a poisonous air pollutant produced from the incomplete oxidation of carbon during the combustion process. It has a direct effect on the human body due to its affinity for blood hemoglobin, which inhibits the absorption of oxygen to the blood. The formation of carboxyhemoglobin complex can profoundly affect human health both on an acute and a chronic basis. CO can also be found inside any house at the level of 0.5-30 ppm [http://www.epa.gov/iaq/co.html] because it can be produced from the combustion of household utilities such as heater, stove, fireplace and automobile exhaust in the attached household garage. As CO is a colorless and an odorless gas, CO detectors need to be installed to monitor the CO concentration in a working environment. For an ambient environment, the most popular way of measuring CO uses the principles of nondispersive infrared absorption (NDIR). Other useful methods are Gas Chromatography with flame ionization detector (GC/FID) or Catalytic oxidation techniques. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) employs NDIR as a traditional reference method for CO monitoring regulation. This method is performed by an analyzer and required standard gas system, pump, monitoring station, air conditioner or heater, computing equipment with appropriate programming, and other related equipment. All the necessary equipment needs to be housed and operated inside a room, and protected from rain, dust, and sunlight. Such preventive issues make this method complicated, cumbersome, and expensive. Recent advances in wireless sensor networks (WSNs) make them an attractive solution for monitoring air quality. For instance, a wireless system designed to monitor indoor CO2 concentration is described in the literature. Lindsay Seders et al. deployed a sensor network to monitor water quality in St. Mary's Lake on the University of Notre Dame campus. This wireless sensor network used nodes by Mica2 and MDA300 from Crossbow Inc. [http://www.epa.gov/iaq/co.html]. Cardell-Oliver et al. developed and evaluated a reactive sensor network for monitoring soil moisture, which can adaptively change the sampling rate based on rainfall events. The successful deployment of these systems demonstrates that WSNs can be useful for some environmental monitoring scenarios. Very little work has been done for CO monitoring with wireless sensor networks. Agrawal et al. have indicated that WSNs can provide continuous, real-time data of ambient air quality. The sensor systems, combined with the wireless communication network, give the benefit of convenience in deployment, and lower operation and maintenance cost when compared with NDIR technique. The sensor nodes can be powered by either batteries and/or solar energy sources. With the objective of monitoring the area around the University of Cincinnati (UC), 5 out of 15 planned CO sensors were placed on electric poles as shown in Figure 1. This was done to check the proof of the concept and the rest of sensors will be placed in the near future.
Description Affiliation: University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH (Agrawal, Dharma P.; Chaiwatpongsakorn, Chaichana; Lu, Mingming; Keener, Tim C.) || Microsoft Corp. (Wang, Demin) || Air Quality and Noise Management Bureau, Bangkok, Thailand (Toruksa, Wassana)
Age Range 18 to 22 years ♦ above 22 year
Educational Use Research
Education Level UG and PG
Learning Resource Type Article
Publisher Date 2005-08-01
Publisher Place New York
Journal Communications of the ACM (CACM)
Volume Number 53
Issue Number 5
Page Count 4
Starting Page 138
Ending Page 141


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Source: ACM Digital Library