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Author Lee, Sangmin ♦ Varghese, George ♦ Vahdat, Amin ♦ Savage, Stefan ♦ Voelker, Geoffrey M. ♦ Gupta, Diwaker ♦ Vrable, Michael ♦ Snoeren, Alex C.
Source ACM Digital Library
Content type Text
Publisher Association for Computing Machinery (ACM)
File Format PDF
Language English
Abstract Virtual machine monitors (VMMs) are a popular platform for Internet hosting centers and cloud-based compute services. By multiplexing hardware resources among virtual machines (VMs) running commodity operating systems, VMMs decrease both the capital outlay and management overhead of hosting centers. Appropriate placement and migration policies can take advantage of statistical multiplexing to effectively utilize available processors. However, main memory is not amenable to such multiplexing and is often the primary bottleneck in achieving higher degrees of consolidation. Previous efforts have shown that content-based page sharing provides modest decreases in the memory footprint of VMs running similar operating systems and applications. Our studies show that significant additional gains can be had by leveraging both subpage level sharing (through page patching) and incore memory compression. We build Difference Engine, an extension to the Xen VMM, to support each of these---in addition to standard copy-on-write full-page sharing---and demonstrate substantial savings across VMs running disparate workloads (up to 65%). In head-to-head memory-savings comparisons, Difference Engine outperforms VMware ESX server by a factor 1.6--2.5 for heterogeneous workloads. In all cases, the performance overhead of Difference Engine is less than 7%.
Description Affiliation: University of California, San Diego (Vrable, Michael; Savage, Stefan; Snoeren, Alex C.; Varghese, George; Voelker, Geoffrey M.; Vahdat, Amin) || UT Austin (Lee, Sangmin) || Aster Data (Gupta, Diwaker)
Age Range 18 to 22 years ♦ above 22 year
Educational Use Research
Education Level UG and PG
Learning Resource Type Article
Publisher Date 2005-08-01
Publisher Place New York
Journal Communications of the ACM (CACM)
Volume Number 53
Issue Number 10
Page Count 9
Starting Page 85
Ending Page 93


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Source: ACM Digital Library