|Author||Savoy, Jacques ♦ Dolamic, Ljiljana|
|Source||ACM Digital Library|
|Publisher||Association for Computing Machinery (ACM)|
|Abstract||Introduction In multilingual countries (Canada, Hong Kong, India, among others) and large international organizations or companies (such as, WTO, European Parliament), and among Web users in general, accessing information written in other languages has become a real need (news, hotel or airline reservations, or government information, statistics). While some users are bilingual, others can read documents written in another language but cannot formulate a query to search it, or at least cannot provide reliable search terms in a form comparable to those found in the documents being searched. There are also many monolingual users who may want to retrieve documents in another language and then have them translated into their own language, either manually or automatically. Translation services may however be too expensive, not readily accessible or not available within a short timeframe. On the other hand, many documents contain non-textual information such as images, videos and statistics that do not need translation and can be understood regardless of the language involved. In response to these needs and in order to make the Web universally available regardless of any language barriers, in May 2007 Google launched a translation service that now provides two-way online translation services mainly between English and 41 other languages, for example, Arabic, simplified and traditional Chinese, French, German, Italian, Japanese, Korean, Portuguese, Russian, and Spanish (http://translate.google.com/). Over the last few years other free Internet translation services have been made available as for example by BabelFish (http://babel.altavista.com/) or Yahoo! (http://babelfish.yahoo.com/). These two systems are similar to that used by Google, given they are based on technology developed by Systran, one of the earliest companies to develop machine translation. Also worth mentioning here is the Promt system (also known as Reverso, http://translation2.paralink.com/), which was developed in Russia to provide mainly translation between Russian and other languages. The question we would like to address here is to what extent a translation service such as Google can produce adequate results in the language other than that being used to write the query. Although we will not evaluate translations per se we will test and analyze various systems in terms of their ability to retrieve items automatically based on a translated query. To be adequate, these tests must be done on a collection of documents written in one given language plus a series of topics (expressing user information needs) written in other languages, plus a series of relevance assessments (relevant documents for each topic).|
|Description||Affiliation: University of Neuchatel, Switzerland (Savoy, Jacques; Dolamic, Ljiljana)|
|Age Range||18 to 22 years ♦ above 22 year|
|Education Level||UG and PG|
|Learning Resource Type||Article|
|Publisher Place||New York|
|Journal||Communications of the ACM (CACM)|
Ministry of Human Resource Development (MHRD) under its National Mission on Education through Information and Communication Technology (NMEICT) has initiated the National Digital Library of India (NDLI) project to develop a framework of virtual repository of learning resources with a single-window search facility. Filtered and federated searching is employed to facilitate focused searching so that learners can find out the right resource with least effort and in minimum time. NDLI is designed to hold content of any language and provides interface support for leading vernacular languages, (currently Hindi, Bengali and several other languages are available). It is designed to provide support for all academic levels including researchers and life-long learners, all disciplines, all popular forms of access devices and differently-abled learners. It is being developed to help students to prepare for entrance and competitive examinations, to enable people to learn and prepare from best practices from all over the world and to facilitate researchers to perform inter-linked exploration from multiple sources. It is being developed at Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur.
NDLI is a conglomeration of freely available or institutionally contributed or donated or publisher managed contents. Almost all these contents are hosted and accessed from respective sources. The responsibility for authenticity, relevance, completeness, accuracy, reliability and suitability of these contents rests with the respective organization and NDLI has no responsibility or liability for these. Every effort is made to keep the NDLI portal up and running smoothly unless there are some unavoidable technical issues.
Ministry of Human Resource Development (MHRD), through its National Mission on Education through Information and Communication Technology (NMEICT), has sponsored and funded the National Digital Library of India (NDLI) project.
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