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Author Lanka, Sitaram ♦ Heil, Stephen ♦ Constantinides, Kypros ♦ Gray, Jan ♦ Esmaeilzadeh, Hadi ♦ Fowers, Jeremy ♦ Kim, Joo-Young ♦ Burger, Doug ♦ Xiao, Phillip Yi ♦ Larus, James ♦ Putnam, Andrew ♦ Chiou, Derek ♦ Caulfield, Adrian M. ♦ Smith, Aaron ♦ Gopal, Gopi Prashanth ♦ Hauck, Scott ♦ Peterson, Eric ♦ Chung, Eric S. ♦ Pope, Simon ♦ Haselman, Michael ♦ Demme, John ♦ Hormati, Amir ♦ Thong, Jason
Source ACM Digital Library
Content type Text
Publisher Association for Computing Machinery (ACM)
File Format PDF
Language English
Abstract Datacenter workloads demand high computational capabilities, flexibility, power efficiency, and low cost. It is challenging to improve all of these factors simultaneously. To advance datacenter capabilities beyond what commodity server designs can provide, we designed and built a composable, reconfigurable hardware fabric based on field programmable gate arrays (FPGA). Each server in the fabric contains one FPGA, and all FPGAs within a 48-server rack are interconnected over a low-latency, high-bandwidth network. We describe a medium-scale deployment of this fabric on a bed of 1632 servers, and measure its effectiveness in accelerating the ranking component of the Bing web search engine. We describe the requirements and architecture of the system, detail the critical engineering challenges and solutions needed to make the system robust in the presence of failures, and measure the performance, power, and resilience of the system. Under high load, the large-scale reconfigurable fabric improves the ranking throughput of each server by 95% at a desirable latency distribution or reduces tail latency by 29% at a fixed throughput. In other words, the reconfigurable fabric enables the same throughput using only half the number of servers.
Description Affiliation: Microsoft, Redmond, WA (Putnam, Andrew; Caulfield, Adrian M.; Chung, Eric S.; Fowers, Jeremy; Gopal, Gopi Prashanth; Gray, Jan; Haselman, Michael; Heil, Stephen; Kim, Joo-Young; Lanka, Sitaram; Peterson, Eric; Pope, Simon; Smith, Aaron; Thong, Jason; Xiao, Phillip Yi; Burger, Doug) || Microsoft and University of Texas at Austin (Chiou, Derek) || Google, Inc., Mountain View, CA (Hormati, Amir) || Amazon Web Services, Boston, MA (Constantinides, Kypros) || Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA (Esmaeilzadeh, Hadi) || Columbia University, New York, NY (Demme, John) || Microsoft, Redmond, WA and University of Washington, Seattle (Hauck, Scott) || École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL), Lausanne, Switzerland (Larus, James)
Age Range 18 to 22 years ♦ above 22 year
Educational Use Research
Education Level UG and PG
Learning Resource Type Article
Publisher Date 2005-08-01
Publisher Place New York
Journal Communications of the ACM (CACM)
Volume Number 59
Issue Number 11
Page Count 9
Starting Page 114
Ending Page 122

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Source: ACM Digital Library