|Author||LEE, DANIEL G. ♦ FELS, DEBORAH I. ♦ UDO, JOHN PATRICK|
|Source||ACM Digital Library|
|Publisher||Association for Computing Machinery (ACM)|
|Subject Keyword||Television ♦ Closed captioning ♦ Assistive technologies ♦ Human-computer interaction ♦ People with disabilities|
|Abstract||Television and film have become important equalization mechanisms for the dissemination and distribution of cultural materials. Closed captioning has allowed people who are deaf and hard of hearing to be included as audience members. However, some of the audio information such as music, sound effects, and speech prosody are not generally provided for in captioning. To include some of this information in closed captions, we generated graphical representations of the emotive information that is normally represented with nondialog sound. Eleven deaf and hard of hearing viewers watched two different video clips containing static and dynamic enhanced captions and compared them with conventional closed captions of the same clips. These viewers then provided verbal and written feedback regarding positive and negative aspects of the various captions. We found that hard of hearing viewers were significantly more positive about this style of captioning than deaf viewers and that some viewers believed that these augmentations were useful and enhanced their viewing experience.|
|Description||Affiliation: Ryerson University, Toronto (LEE, DANIEL G.; FELS, DEBORAH I.; UDO, JOHN PATRICK)|
|Age Range||18 to 22 years ♦ above 22 year|
|Education Level||UG and PG|
|Learning Resource Type||Article|
|Publisher Place||New York|
|Journal||Computers in Entertainment (CIE) (CIE)|
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