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Author LEE, DANIEL G. ♦ FELS, DEBORAH I. ♦ UDO, JOHN PATRICK
Source ACM Digital Library
Content type Text
Publisher Association for Computing Machinery (ACM)
File Format PDF
Language English
Subject Keyword Television ♦ Closed captioning ♦ Assistive technologies ♦ Human-computer interaction ♦ People with disabilities
Abstract Television and film have become important equalization mechanisms for the dissemination and distribution of cultural materials. Closed captioning has allowed people who are deaf and hard of hearing to be included as audience members. However, some of the audio information such as music, sound effects, and speech prosody are not generally provided for in captioning. To include some of this information in closed captions, we generated graphical representations of the emotive information that is normally represented with nondialog sound. Eleven deaf and hard of hearing viewers watched two different video clips containing static and dynamic enhanced captions and compared them with conventional closed captions of the same clips. These viewers then provided verbal and written feedback regarding positive and negative aspects of the various captions. We found that hard of hearing viewers were significantly more positive about this style of captioning than deaf viewers and that some viewers believed that these augmentations were useful and enhanced their viewing experience.
Description Affiliation: Ryerson University, Toronto (LEE, DANIEL G.; FELS, DEBORAH I.; UDO, JOHN PATRICK)
Age Range 18 to 22 years ♦ above 22 year
Educational Use Research
Education Level UG and PG
Learning Resource Type Article
Publisher Date 2008-03-01
Publisher Place New York
Journal Computers in Entertainment (CIE) (CIE)
Volume Number 5
Issue Number 2


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Source: ACM Digital Library