|Author||Hall, D. ♦ Schuemann, J. ♦ Paganetti, H. ♦ Perl, J. ♦ Faddegon, B.|
|Source||United States Department of Energy Office of Scientific and Technical Information|
|Subject Keyword||APPLIED LIFE SCIENCES ♦ RADIATION PROTECTION AND DOSIMETRY ♦ BRAGG CURVE ♦ COMPUTER CODES ♦ COMPUTERIZED SIMULATION ♦ EXPERIMENTAL DATA ♦ MONTE CARLO METHOD ♦ PROTON BEAMS ♦ QUALITY CONTROL ♦ RADIOTHERAPY ♦ STOCHASTIC PROCESSES|
|Abstract||Purpose: Monte Carlo particle transport simulation (MC) codes have become important tools in proton therapy and biology, both for research and practice. TOPAS is an MC toolkit serving users worldwide (213 licensed users at 95 institutions in 21 countries). It provides unprecedented ease in 4D placement of geometry components, beam sources and scoring through its user-friendly and reproducible parameter file interface. Quality control (QC) of stochastic simulation software is inherently difficult, and the versatility of TOPAS introduces additional challenges. But QC is vital as the TOPAS development team implements new features, addresses user feedback and reacts to upgrades of underlying software (i.e. Geant4). Methods: Whenever code is committed to our repository, over 50 separate module tests are automatically triggered via a continuous integration service. They check that the various module options execute successfully and that their results are statistically consistent with previous reference values. Prior to each software release, longer end-to-end tests automatically validate TOPAS against experimental data and a TOPAS benchmark. These include simulating multiple properties of spread-out Bragg peaks, validating nuclear models, and searching for differences in patient simulations. Results: Continuous integration has proven effective in catching regressions at the time they are introduced, particularly when implementing new features that involve refactoring code (e.g. multithreading and ntuple output). Code coverage statistics highlight untested portions of code and guide development of new tests. The various end-to-end tests demonstrate that TOPAS accurately describes the physics of proton therapy within clinical tolerances. Conclusion: The TOPAS QC strategy of frequent short tests and pre-release long tests has led to a more reliable tool. However, the versatility of TOPAS makes it difficult to predict how users might combine different modules, and so QC ultimately remains a partnership between the developer and the user. This work was funded by National Cancer Institute grant R01 CA 140735.|
|Learning Resource Type||Article|
|Publisher Place||United States|
Ministry of Human Resource Development (MHRD) under its National Mission on Education through Information and Communication Technology (NMEICT) has initiated the National Digital Library of India (NDLI) project to develop a framework of virtual repository of learning resources with a single-window search facility. Filtered and federated searching is employed to facilitate focused searching so that learners can find out the right resource with least effort and in minimum time. NDLI is designed to hold content of any language and provides interface support for leading vernacular languages, (currently Hindi, Bengali and several other languages are available). It is designed to provide support for all academic levels including researchers and life-long learners, all disciplines, all popular forms of access devices and differently-abled learners. It is being developed to help students to prepare for entrance and competitive examinations, to enable people to learn and prepare from best practices from all over the world and to facilitate researchers to perform inter-linked exploration from multiple sources. It is being developed at Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur.
NDLI is a conglomeration of freely available or institutionally contributed or donated or publisher managed contents. Almost all these contents are hosted and accessed from respective sources. The responsibility for authenticity, relevance, completeness, accuracy, reliability and suitability of these contents rests with the respective organization and NDLI has no responsibility or liability for these. Every effort is made to keep the NDLI portal up and running smoothly unless there are some unavoidable technical issues.
Ministry of Human Resource Development (MHRD), through its National Mission on Education through Information and Communication Technology (NMEICT), has sponsored and funded the National Digital Library of India (NDLI) project.
For any issue or feedback, please write to email@example.com