|Author||Leithe, Edward ♦ Kjenseth, Ane ♦ Bruun, Jarle ♦ Sirnes, Solveig ♦ Rivedal, Edgar|
|Source||United States Department of Energy Office of Scientific and Technical Information|
|Subject Keyword||APPLIED LIFE SCIENCES ♦ ENDOCRINE GLANDS ♦ HERBICIDES ♦ INHIBITION ♦ MEMBRANE PROTEINS ♦ MEMBRANES ♦ NEOPLASMS ♦ PHOSPHORYLATION ♦ BODY ♦ CHEMICAL REACTIONS ♦ DISEASES ♦ GLANDS ♦ ORGANIC COMPOUNDS ♦ ORGANS ♦ PESTICIDES ♦ PROTEINS|
|Abstract||Gap junctions are intercellular plasma membrane domains containing channels that mediate transport of ions, metabolites and small signaling molecules between adjacent cells. Gap junctions play important roles in a variety of cellular processes, including regulation of cell growth and differentiation, maintenance of tissue homeostasis and embryogenesis. The constituents of gap junction channels are a family of trans-membrane proteins called connexins, of which the best-studied is connexin43. Connexin43 functions as a tumor suppressor protein in various tissue types and is frequently dysregulated in human cancers. The pesticide ioxynil has previously been shown to act as an endocrine disrupting chemical and has multiple effects on the thyroid axis. Furthermore, both ioxynil and its derivative ioxynil octanoate have been reported to induce tumors in animal bioassays. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the possible tumorigenic effects of these compounds are unknown. In the present study we show that ioxynil and ioxynil octanoate are strong inhibitors of connexin43 gap junction channels. Both compounds induced rapid loss of connexin43 gap junctions at the plasma membrane and increased connexin43 degradation. Ioxynil octanoate, but not ioxynil, was found to be a strong activator of ERK1/2. The compounds also had different effects on the phosphorylation status of connexin43. Taken together, the data show that ioxynil and ioxynil octanoate are potent inhibitors of intercellular communication via gap junctions.|
|Learning Resource Type||Article|
|Publisher Place||United States|
|Journal||Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology|
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