|Source||United States Department of Energy Office of Scientific and Technical Information|
|Subject Keyword||APPLIED LIFE SCIENCES ♦ ALGORITHMS ♦ BREIT-WIGNER FORMULA ♦ CROSS SECTIONS ♦ DEUTERIUM ♦ DEUTERONS ♦ ENERGY TRANSFER ♦ NEOPLASMS ♦ NEUTRONS ♦ NUCLEAR REACTIONS ♦ PROTONS ♦ RADIATION DOSE DISTRIBUTIONS ♦ RADIOTHERAPY|
|Abstract||Purpose: The knowledge of the total nuclear cross-section Qtot(E) of therapeutic protons Qtot(E) provides important information in advanced radiotherapy with protons, such as the decrease of fluence of primary protons, the release of secondary particles (neutrons, protons, deuterons, etc.), and the production of nuclear fragments (heavy recoils), which usually undergo β+/− decay by emission of γ-quanta. Therefore determination of Qtot(E) is an important tool for sophisticated calculation algorithms of dose distributions. This cross-section can be determined by a linear combination of shifted Gaussian kernels and an error-function. The resonances resulting from deconvolutions in the energy space can be associated with typical nuclear reactions. Methods: The described method of the determination of Qtot(E) results from an extension of the Breit-Wigner formula and a rather extended version of the nuclear shell theory to include nuclear correlation effects, clusters and highly excited/virtually excited nuclear states. The elastic energy transfer of protons to nucleons (the quantum numbers of the target nucleus remain constant) can be removed by the mentioned deconvolution. Results: The deconvolution of the term related to the error-function of the type cerf*er((E-ETh)/σerf] is the main contribution to obtain various nuclear reactions as resonances, since the elastic part of energy transfer is removed. The nuclear products of various elements of therapeutic interest like oxygen, calcium are classified and calculated. Conclusions: The release of neutrons is completely underrated, in particular, for low-energy protons. The transport of seconary particles, e.g. cluster formation by deuterium, tritium and α-particles, show an essential contribution to secondary particles, and the heavy recoils, which create γ-quanta by decay reactions, lead to broadening of the scatter profiles. These contributions cannot be accounted for by one single Gaussian kernel for the description of lateral scatter.|
|Learning Resource Type||Article|
|Publisher Place||United States|
Ministry of Human Resource Development (MHRD) under its National Mission on Education through Information and Communication Technology (NMEICT) has initiated the National Digital Library of India (NDLI) project to develop a framework of virtual repository of learning resources with a single-window search facility. Filtered and federated searching is employed to facilitate focused searching so that learners can find out the right resource with least effort and in minimum time. NDLI is designed to hold content of any language and provides interface support for leading vernacular languages, (currently Hindi, Bengali and several other languages are available). It is designed to provide support for all academic levels including researchers and life-long learners, all disciplines, all popular forms of access devices and differently-abled learners. It is being developed to help students to prepare for entrance and competitive examinations, to enable people to learn and prepare from best practices from all over the world and to facilitate researchers to perform inter-linked exploration from multiple sources. It is being developed at Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur.
NDLI is a conglomeration of freely available or institutionally contributed or donated or publisher managed contents. Almost all these contents are hosted and accessed from respective sources. The responsibility for authenticity, relevance, completeness, accuracy, reliability and suitability of these contents rests with the respective organization and NDLI has no responsibility or liability for these. Every effort is made to keep the NDLI portal up and running smoothly unless there are some unavoidable technical issues.
Ministry of Human Resource Development (MHRD), through its National Mission on Education through Information and Communication Technology (NMEICT), has sponsored and funded the National Digital Library of India (NDLI) project.
For any issue or feedback, please write to firstname.lastname@example.org