|Author||Nichols, J. W. ♦ McKim, J. M. ♦ Lien, G. J. ♦ Hoffman, A. D. ♦ Bertelsen, S. L.|
|Source||United States Department of Energy Office of Scientific and Technical Information|
|Subject Keyword||RADIATION, THERMAL, AND OTHER ENVIRON. POLLUTANT EFFECTS ON LIVING ORGS. AND BIOL. MAT. ♦ CHLORINATED ALIPHATIC HYDROCARBONS ♦ TISSUE DISTRIBUTION ♦ BILE ♦ BIOLOGICAL ACCUMULATION ♦ LIPIDS ♦ TROUT ♦ WATER POLLUTION ♦ ANIMALS ♦ AQUATIC ORGANISMS ♦ BIOLOGICAL MATERIALS ♦ BODY FLUIDS ♦ DISTRIBUTION ♦ FISHES ♦ HALOGENATED ALIPHATIC HYDROCARBONS ♦ MATERIALS ♦ ORGANIC CHLORINE COMPOUNDS ♦ ORGANIC COMPOUNDS ♦ ORGANIC HALOGEN COMPOUNDS ♦ POLLUTION ♦ VERTEBRATES ♦ Chemicals Metabolism & Toxicology|
|Abstract||A physiologically based toxicokinetic model for fish was used to simulate the uptake and disposition of three waterborne chloroethanes in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Trout were exposed to 1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethane, pentachloroethane, and hexachloroethane in fish respirometer-metabolism chambers to assess the kinetics of chemical accumulation in arterial blood and chemical extraction efficiency from inspired water. Chemical residues in tissues were measured at the end of each experiment. Trout exposed to tetrachloroethane were close to steady-state in 48 hr. Fish exposed to pentachloroethane were near steady-state in 264 hr. Extraction efficiency data showed that systemic (extrabranchial) elimination of both chemicals was small. Hexachloroethane continued to accumulate in fish exposed for 600 hr. Parameterized with chemical partitioning data obtained in vitro, the model accurately simulated the uptake of all three chloroethanes in blood and tissues and their extraction from inspired water. These results provide support for the basic model structure and the accuracy of physiological input parameters.|
|Learning Resource Type||Article|
|Publisher Place||United States|
|Journal||Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology|
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