### Microchip for the Measurement of Seebeck Coefficients of Single NanowiresMicrochip for the Measurement of Seebeck Coefficients of Single Nanowires

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 Author Völklein, F. ♦ Schmitt, M. ♦ Cornelius, T. W. ♦ Picht, O. ♦ Müller, S. ♦ Neumann, R. Source SpringerLink Content type Text Publisher Springer US File Format PDF Copyright Year ©2009 Language English
 Subject Domain (in DDC) Technology ♦ Engineering & allied operations Subject Keyword Microchip ♦ Seebeck coefficient ♦ bismuth ♦ nanowire ♦ Solid State Physics and Spectroscopy ♦ Electronics and Microelectronics, Instrumentation ♦ Characterization and Evaluation of Materials ♦ Optical and Electronic Materials Abstract Bismuth nanowires were electrochemically grown in ion track-etched polycarbonate membranes. Micromachining and microlithography were employed to realize a newly developed microchip for Seebeck coefficient measurements on individual nanowires. By anisotropic etching of a (100) Si wafer, an 800-nm-thick SiO$_{2}$/Si$_{3}$N$_{4}$ membrane was prepared in the chip center. The low thermal conductivity of the membrane is crucial to obtain the required temperature difference ΔT along the nanowire. The wire is electrically contacted to thin metal pads which are patterned by a new method of microscopic exposure of photoresist and a lift-off process. A ΔT between the two pairs of contact pads, located on the membrane, is established by a thin-film heater. Applying the known Seebeck coefficient of a reference film, the temperature difference at this gap is determined. Using ΔT and the measured Seebeck voltage U of the nanowire, its Seebeck coefficient can be calculated. ISSN 03615235 Age Range 18 to 22 years ♦ above 22 year Educational Use Research Education Level UG and PG Learning Resource Type Article Publisher Date 2009-02-28 Publisher Place Boston e-ISSN 1543186X Journal Journal of Electronic Materials Volume Number 38 Issue Number 7 Page Count 7 Starting Page 1109 Ending Page 1115