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Author Darnerud, Per Ola ♦ Eriksen, Gunnar S. ♦ Jóhannesson, Torkell ♦ Larsen, Poul B. ♦ Viluksela, Matti
Source CiteSeerX
Content type Text
File Format PDF
Language English
Subject Domain (in DDC) Computer science, information & general works ♦ Data processing & computer science
Subject Keyword Steady State ♦ Textile Coating ♦ Substantial Increase ♦ Diphenyl Ether ♦ Scientific Knowledge ♦ Commercial Product ♦ Swedish Data ♦ Maternal Toxicity ♦ Lowest-observed-adverse-effect Level ♦ High Level ♦ Mg Kg Day ♦ Characteristic End Point ♦ Critical Effect ♦ Different Part ♦ Available Study ♦ Dietary Exposure ♦ Aquatic Biotopes ♦ Dietary Intake ♦ Behavioral Effect ♦ Thyroid Effect ♦ Aquatic Biota ♦ Flame Retardant ♦ Global Pbde Production ♦ Pbde Group ♦ Mother Milk ♦ Critical Period ♦ Animal Toxicity ♦ Pbde Level
Description Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are used as flame retardants in plastics (concentration, 5–30%) and in textile coatings. Commercial products consist predominantly of penta-, octa-, and decabromodiphenyl ether mixtures, and global PBDE production is about 40,000 tons per year. PBDEs are bioaccumulated and biomagnified in the environment, and comparatively high levels are often found in aquatic biotopes from different parts of the world. During the mid-1970–1980s there was a substantial increase in the PBDE levels with time in both sediments and aquatic biota, whereas the latest Swedish data (pike and guillemot egg) may indicate that levels are at steady state or are decreasing. However, exponentially increasing PBDE levels have been observed in mother’s milk during 1972–1997. Based on levels in food from 1999, the dietary intake of PBDE in Sweden has been estimated to be 0.05 µg per day. Characteristic end points of animal toxicity are hepatotoxicity, embryotoxicity, and thyroid effects as well as maternal toxicity during gestation. Recently, behavioral effects have been observed in mice on administration of PBDEs during a critical period after birth. Based on the critical effects reported in available studies, we consider the lowest-observed-adverse-effect level (LOAEL) value of the PBDE group to be 1 mg/kg/day (primarily based on effects of pentaBDEs). In conclusion, with the scientific knowledge of today and based on
Educational Role Student ♦ Teacher
Age Range above 22 year
Educational Use Research
Education Level UG and PG ♦ Career/Technical Study
Learning Resource Type Article
Publisher Institution and toxicology, Environ. Health Persp., 2001, 109 Suppl